How did the parts of the face and body called in the old days?
Eyes, mouth, percy and still a number of interesting words
In ancient Russia in a book or in a solemn oral speech, words different from our usual today were used for the name of different parts of the face and body. For the most part, they are preserved in modern Russian, but they received a shade of archaic and accessories to high calm.
Origin These words have different. Some of them came from the Old Slavonic language, part - talked in ancient Russian (we recall again, that this is not the same thing!).
But let's finish with this preamble. Surely you are already waiting for examples.
Let's start with the most famous. If you were told Rusch something about your own or his eyes, he would most likely not understand you. The word "eye" in Russian has spread only at the end of the XVI century. And before talked - eye (about one eye) or Oph. (about two eyes). By the way, if it was necessary to point out that the eye is not two, and more, then the word was used Fel .
Another popular example is the word mouth denoting the mouth. It is now rarely used in live speech, but the words "oral" and "mouth" are preserved.
In figurative expressions and today is often used by the old palm name - DLAN . By the way, these words are single. DLAN - has an old Slavonic origin. In ancient Russian language, the word was uttered a little differently - Dolo. And in the process of evolution, Doloch turned into palm. This happens - the language as it is running the difficult word, moving sounds and syllables in it.
We continue to study hands. What was the name, for example, fingers? The answer is simple: Fraps . This root is preserved in the word "thimble".
Separate words in the old days had for the right and left hand. As the right is called, many people know - right hand . But the name of the left is not very hearing. It was called - Shuya. or Shuitsa . From here, by the way, the famous last name - Shui.
Very famous word - man . Not even special explanations are required. It means forehead. And beating a friend - beat his forehead.
Further by turn to the less well-known cases. Do you know how the chest was called in the old days? And and women, and men's? She was named - Percy. Always in a plural.
And cheeks? Those who are fond of Russian poetry of the XIX century, it is well known. Cheeks were called - Lanits . And this word often used our classics in their poems.
Only in the phraseology remained the old name of the pupil - Zenica . When we say, "take care, as a zenitsa of an eye," there is a pupil, which many people do not guess.
Here is a difficult example - tell me what is Pyat ? This can be guess if you remember the word "wrist" and think that this wrist is just for Pyask. In ancient Russian, the fist called a fist.
And what is your one, Ramo? Or, as they said more often - Ramen. (is this multiple number)? In the old descriptions of the battle, this word was often encountered. Marked it - shoulder. Ramemen - shoulders.
Let's finish this list Chersla . In the ancient texts, men were usually prevented by their sword, preparing for the battle. Or just pregnant, going on the road. Chersla is a loan one or the pelvis area.
Here are not all examples of vintage words for body parts and face. Add what else remember in the comments.
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I have been carrying wristwatches all the time and I feel very not comfortable when I can not view the time. I control when and where it is necessary to come what to do. How much is the time spent on some time. Although there is such a saying that the happy hours do not observe, but even during the rest constantly with the clock.
And how in old days people did without precise time control? But then people could accurately determine time, only with a small error.
Gnomon - the sun shines, time is known
Before the mechanical clock was widespread, the time was determined using solar clocks. This device had three parts: gnomon, that is, the element, discarding the shadow, the dial, on which this shadow falls, and another, the conditional detail is directly the sun, which "turns out" these watches.
Lines are applied to the dial, and the gnomom has a value and shape, for the calculation of which geographic coordinates are used. That is, every sundial is created for a certain area. Their manufacturing is a painstaking and complex process, requiring knowledge, skills. Because such devices were expensive.
In Russia, they did it easier: our ancestors just dug a high pole to the ground, which discarded the shadow. Watching the size of the shadows, it was possible to determine the time. Of course, it was not the perfect way. But comparing the lengths of the shade, for example, at noon, in the evening or at dawn, and also measuring it at different times of the year, our ancestors constituted a fairly clear determinant of time.
Everything was fine if the sun was constantly shining in Russia. Unfortunately, this is from the field of fiction - rain, cloudy and other bad weather here are very happy. If you add a feature of the northern regions, where the sun does not rise too high above the horizon, why and the shadow indicators of the gnomon have a very large length, it turns out that the sundial could not be considered as the only, accurate, year-round option.
We in Belgorod, too, on the street there are huge sundials. Somehow passing by compared with his wrists - accurately show solar! That's it! Literally up to minute.
Klepsidra who steal water
View of the clock that does not depend on sunlight - water. They are called Klepsidra. If you disassemble this word on the part, but it consists of Klepto - to hide and hydor - water, then it is clear that in translation from Greek, but it means nothing but the "water kidnapper". The simplest Klepsider is two vessels installed at various levels. In the top there is a hole through which water drops into the lower. Time was determined by observing how the water level in the upper vessel decreases, or - how rises in the lower. There is a version that the expression "current" occurred from here.
Since the pressure of the water is influenced by pressure in the vessel, the tank began to do in the form of a truncated cone. The structure of Klepsidra has an advantage over sunny clock, since the system of communicating vessels can be brought to perfection. They can be used at any time of the day, they determine the time more accurately.
Modern water clock.
But it is possible to use them only when water is in a liquid state. Alas, there are often frosts in Russia, and she could just freeze. Such constructions were not found among the population, they were used mainly when carrying out church rites and were called "hydrology".
Roosters, Larks and Flowers for the Poor
The clock in Russia has long been the subject of luxury. Simple people used their own methods to do without complicated mechanisms. Our ancestors were observing, natural processes were not secret for them.
For example, birds. It is clear that the alarm clock in the old days (yes in many villages and today) was a rooster, which was kicked three times per night: for the first time after midnight, then two hours in the afternoon, and for the last time early in the morning, about the beginning of the fifth. Oriole, Lark, Sparrow - These Ptakhi also woke up and began their chants at a certain time. It was necessary only to observe, listen to the advice of old people and remember Time. As well known, the desires do not have to write in 2 choirs, IvoLGA in 3 choirs, and there are only 6 choirs of YTRA. The main "clock" in the old days was a rooster. For the first time, the roosters shout in the first hour of the night, the second time - at 2 o'clock in the morning, the third time - in the fifth hour of the morning. Crescents led the observation of flowers, since those, turning to the Sun, dissolve and closed in a strictly defined time. The life cycle of many reasons and elongate is with a lot. The color varnish russes are rusted and zakyuyu in the area, if you have one. Filiarity, the turns are well acquired and zakuyady, it is also known to be the same, and they are too different in the day or no one. Having like this, the principle, in the cooler, Karl Linnei has come, and there was a detailed chance, which "quickly" with three choices of the Most of it. Looking on them, there was a breaking of a lie with one to 30 minyt. And, of course, the sun itself. Slavs divided the day for the day and night, focusing on the movement of the heavenly shining. The mid day was noon when the sun was at the highest point. The later, the longer the shadow of the items.
There was no electricity in antiquity, there was nothing to illuminate the hut. Yes, there were candles, but burn them constantly was economically unprofitable. Because only the sun was sake, the house covered the darkness - you can go to bed with a clean conscience. In addition, our ancestors did not need a clear time definition, in minutes, seconds. For what? Dawn - you can go to the field, work - until the sunset, returned to the village at dusk. Shepherds, for example, measured shadow from the tree with the help of the laps, put on their feet. The shadow reached seven noodles - you can collect a herd and lead home.
Interesting the process of replacing temporary concepts with spatial, for example: "Is this village" Is this village? - Yes, far away, two days walk. " A segment that could be passed in one day, called the bottom.
Clear biological watches
Everything is known about biological clocks today, so called the inner circadian rhythm. For its formation, years are required, with its help all biological processes of the human body are formed. We are hunger, it means that the dinner time approached, to which we are accustomed. We want to sleep - you can see at the clock to make sure that at midnight (hour of the night, two and so on), depending on the habit.
Artist K. Makovsky. Peasant lunch during the harvest.
Our ancestors lived on a rigorous schedule. The peasant woman knew that she did not need to call her husband to dinner. He came himself, or was already waiting for his wife in the field, because heavily work and habit did their job, and the appetite was played very much.
The dimension, monotony, characteristic of life in Russia, following a certain schedule, the absence of artificial lighting was made to orient the time simple and partly conditional.
Flowers bloom and closed at a certain time.
Watch workshops began to develop in Russia in the 18th century. This event was marked by the opening of the "watchdog" in Moscow. And today, it is impossible for hours to surprise even a kindergarten - so familiar, inexpensive and universally spread this subject. [Sources ]SourcesHttps: //kulturologia.ru/blogs/200418/38664/http: //interesnyjfakt.ru/kak-ranshe-opredlyali-vremya/http: //russian7.ru/post/kak-na-rusi-opredlyali-vremya/