Pneumonia - Causes, Symptoms, Diagnostics and Treatment

Pneumonia

Pneumonia - acute defeat of light infectious inflammatory character, in which all structural elements of lung tissue are involved, mainly alveoli and interstitial lung tissue. The pneumonia clinic is characterized by fever, weakness, sweating, pain in the chest, shortness of breath, a cough with a wet (mucous, purulent, "rusty"). Pneumonia is diagnosed based on the auscultation pattern, lung radiography data. In the acute period, treatment includes antibiotic therapy, disinfecting therapy, immunostimulation; reception of flux, expectorant, antihistamine; After the cessation of fever - physiotherapy, LFK.

General

Pneumonia is inflammation of the lower respiratory tract of various etiology, which flows with intrastallyolar exudation and accompanied by characteristic clinical and radiographic signs. The sharp pneumonia occurs in 10-14 people out of 1000, in the age group over 50 years old - 17 people from 1000. The relevance of the incidence of acute pneumonia is preserved, despite the introduction of new antimicrobial drugs, as well as the high percentage of complications and mortality (up to 9% ) From pneumonia.

Among the causes of mortality, pneumonia stands on a 4th place after heart disease and vessels, malignant neoplasms, injury and poisoning. Pneumonia can develop in weakened patients, joining the flow of heart failure, oncological diseases, violations of cerebral circulation, and complicates the outcome of the latter. Patients with AIDS pneumonia is the main direct cause of death.

Pneumonia

Pneumonia

Causes and mechanism for the development of pneumonia

Among the etiphorts causing pneumonia, there is a bacterial infection in the first place. Most often, the pathogens of pneumonia are:

  • Gram-positive microorganisms: pneumococci (from 40 to 60%), staphylococci (from 2 to 5%), streptococci (2.5%);
  • Gram-negative microorganisms: Fredlender wand (from 3 to 8%), hemophilic stick (7%), enterobacteria (6%), protea, intestinal wand, legionella, etc. (from 1.5 to 4.5%);
  • Mycoplasma (6%);
  • viral infections (herpes, influenza and paragrippa viruses, adenoviruses, etc.);
  • fungal infections.

Also, pneumonia can develop due to the impact of noncommunicable factors: injuries of the chest, ionizing radiation, toxic substances, allergic agents.

Risk factors

The risk group for the development of pneumonia includes patients with stagnant heart failure, chronic bronchitis, chronic nasopharyngeal infection, congenital lung defects, with severe immunodeficiency states, weakened and exhausted patients, patients, long-term beddown, as well as senior and senile facial .

Particularly subject to the development of pneumonia smokers and alcohol abusers. Nicotine and alcohol pairs damage the mucous membrane of the bronchi and oppress the protective factors of the bronchopulmonary system, creating a favorable environment for the introduction and reproduction of infection.

Pathogenesis

Infectious pathogens of pneumonia penetrate into light bronchogenic, hematogenic or lymphogenic paths. With the reduction of the protective bronchopulmonal barrier in Alveoli, infectious inflammation develops, which through permeable intervalolar partitions is distributed to other departments of lung tissue. In Alveola, the formation of an exudate that prevents oxygen gas exchange between the pulmonary fabric and blood vessels. Oxygen and respiratory failure develop, and with a complicated flow of pneumonia - heart failure.

In the development of pneumonia 4 stages are allocated:

  • the stage of the tide (from 12 hours to 3 days) is characterized by a sharp blood flow of vessels of lungs and fibrinous exudation in the alveoli;
  • Stage of red oven (from 1 to 3 days) - a piece of lung tissue occurs, according to the structure resembling the liver. Erythrocytes in large quantities are found in alveolar exudate;
  • The stage of gray compelling - (from 2 to 6 days) - is characterized by the decay of the red blood cells and the massive leakocyte output in the alveoli;
  • The resolution stage is restored by the normal structure of the lung tissue.

Classification

1. Based on epidemiological data, pneumonia distinguishes:
2. On the etiological factor, with the clarification of the pathogen, pneumonia happens:
3. Under the development mechanism, pneumonia is distinguished:
  • Primary, developing as independent pathology
  • Secondary, developing as a complication of concomitant diseases (for example, stagnant pneumonia)
  • Aspiration, developing in the affiliation of foreign bodies in bronchi (food particles, vomit, etc.)
  • Post traumatic
  • Postoperative
  • Infarction pneumonia, developing due to thromboembolism of small vascular branches of the pulmonary artery.
4. According to the degree of interest of lung tissue there are pneumonia:
  • One-sided (with the defeat of the right or left light)
  • bilateral
  • Total, equity, segmental, subdollated, roasting (central).
5. By the nature of the flow of pneumonia can be:
  • sharp
  • sharp protracted
  • Chronic
6. Taking into account the development of functional disorders of pneumonia proceeds:
  • With the presence of functional disorders (indicating their characteristics and severity)
  • With the lack of functional disorders.
7. Taking into account the development of complications of pneumonia there are:
8. Based on clinical and morphological features, pneumonia distinguishes:
  • Parenchimato (Burent or Share)
  • Focal (bronchopneumonia, pneumonia)
  • interstitial (more often with mycoplasma lesion).
9. Depending on the severity of the flow of pneumonia divide on:
  • Easy degree - It is characterized by poorly pronounced intoxication (clear consciousness, body temperature up to 38 ° C, blood pressure, tachycardia is not more than 90 liters. In min.), Shortness of breath is missing, x-ray is determined by a small focus of inflammation.
  • Middle degree - Signs of moderately pronounced intoxication (clear consciousness, sweating, pronounced weakness, body temperature up to 39 ° C, the hell is moderately reduced, tachycardia is about 100 ° C. in min.), Respiratory rate - up to 30 per minute. At rest, radically determined pronounced infiltration.
  • Heavy degree - It is characterized by pronounced intoxication (fever 39-40 ° C, turbidity of the creation, adamiya, nonsense, tachycardia over 100 liters. In min., Collapse), shortness of breath to 40 per minute. At rest, cyanosis, radiologically determined extensive infiltration, the development of complications of pneumonia.

Symptoms of pneumonia

Brewing pneumonia

It is characteristic of a sharp beginning with a fever over 39 ° C, chills, pain in the chest, shortness of breath, weakness. The cough is worried: first dry, unproductive, further, for 3-4 days - with "rusty" sputum. The body temperature is constantly high. With a bruboral pneumonia, fever, cough and sputum of sputum hold up to 10 days.

With a severe degree of flow of brunt pneumonia, the hyperemia of the skin and cyanosis of the nasolabial triangle is determined. On lips, cheeks, chin, nose wings are visible herpetic rash. Patient condition is severe. Surface breathing, rapid, with inflating the wings of the nose. Auscultatively listened to the crepitution and wet small-pushed wheezes. Pulse, frequent, often arrhythmic, Hell is reduced, heart tones deaf.

Heat pneumonia

It is characterized by a gradual, lowest beginning, more often after transferred by ORVI or acute tracheobronchitis. The temperature of the body febrile (38-38.5 ° C) with daily oscillations, cough is accompanied by the disheve of the mucous-purulent sputum, sweating, weakness, with breathing - chest pain on the breath and with cough, acrocyanosis. With focal drain pneumonia, the patient's condition deteriorates: pronounced shortness of breath, cyanosis appear. With auscultation, hard breathing is listened, exhalation is elongated, dry fine and medium-reported wheezes, attitudes above the hearth inflammation.

Complications of pneumonia

Features of the flow of pneumonia are due to the degree of severity, the properties of the pathogen and the presence of complications. The amount of pneumonia is considered complicated, accompanied by developing in the bronchopulmonary system and other organs of inflammatory and jet processes caused directly by the inflammation of the lungs. The presence of complications largely depends on the course and outcome of pneumonia. Complications of pneumonia can be pulmonary and extractive.

Light complications for pneumonia can be:

Among the extravalous complications of pneumonia often develop:

Diagnostics

When diagnosing pneumonia, several tasks are solved at once: the differential diagnosis of inflammation with other pulmonary processes, the clarification of the etiology and the severity (complications) of pneumonia. Pneumonia in the patient should be suspected on the basis of symptomatic signs: the rapid development of fever and intoxication, cough.

  1. Physical research. The sealing of the pulmonary tissue is determined (based on the percutive dullness of the pulmonary sound and the amplification of the bronchophone), a characteristic auscultation pattern - focal, wet, fine-duct, sonorous wheezes or crepitations.
  2. Laboratory diagnostics. Changes in the general blood test in pneumonia are characterized by leukocytosis of 15 to 30 • 109 / l, with a launching shift of the leukocyte formula from 6 to 30%, with an increase in ESP to 30-50 mm / h. In general, urine analysis can be determined by proteinuria, less often microhematuria. Bakanalize sputum at pneumonia allows you to identify the pathogen and determine its sensitivity to antibiotics.
  3. Lung radiography. Radiographs for pneumonia are usually made at the beginning of the disease and after 3-4 weeks to control the permission of inflammation and exclusion of other pathology (more often of bronchogenic lung cancer). With any kinds of pneumonia, the process captures the lower lobes of the lung. On radiographs, with pneumonia, the following changes can be detected: parenchymal (focal or diffuse darkens of various localization and length); Interstitial (pulmonary pattern is strengthened due to perivascular and peribroscial infiltration).
  4. Ultrasound. According to echocardiography and ultrasound of the pleural cavity, the pleural effusion is sometimes determined.
CT OGK. Plot of pneumonic infiltration in the upper share of the left lung.

CT OGK. Plot of pneumonic infiltration in the upper share of the left lung.

Treatment of pneumonia

Patients with pneumonia, as a rule, are hospitalized into a general-merating department or a branch of pulmonology. For the period of fever and intoxication, bedding is prescribed, abundant warm drinking, high-calorie, rich in vitamins. With discharged respiratory failure phenomena, patients with pneumonia are prescribed oxygen inhalation. The main directions of therapy:

  • Antibiotic therapy. The main in the treatment of pneumonia is antibacterial therapy. Antibiotics should be prescribed as soon as possible, without waiting for the determination of the pathogen. The selection of the antibiotic is carried out by the doctor, no self-treatment is unacceptable! In extractive pneumonia, penicillins are prescribed more often (ampicillin with clavulano k-th, ampicillin, etc.), macrolides, cephalosporins. The choice of a method for administering an antibiotic is determined by the severity of the flow of pneumonia. Penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, ophloxacin, etc.), carbapenes, aminoglycosides are used to treat internal hospitals pneumonium. With an unknown pathogel, combined antibiotic therapy of 2-3 drugs are prescribed. The course of treatment can continue from 7-10 to 14 days, an antibiotic change is possible.
  • Symptomatic therapy. In pneumonia, it shows the conduct of disinfecting therapy, immunostimulation, the appointment of antipyretic, expectorant and musolitic, antihistamine.
  • Physical. After the discontinuation of fever and intoxication, the regime is expanding and prescribed physiotherapy (calcium chloride electrophoresis, potassium iodide, hyaluronidase, UHF, massage, inhalation) and leafc for stimulating the resolution of the inflammatory hearth.

Treatment of pneumonia is carried out until the patient's complete recovery, which is determined by the normalization of state and well-being, physical, radiological and laboratory indicators. With frequent repeated pneumonia, the same localization is solved by the issue of surgical intervention.

Forecast

With pneumonia, the forecast is determined by a number of factors: the virulence of the pathogen, the patient's age, background diseases, immune reactivity, adequacy of treatment. The complicated variants of the flow of pneumonium, immodeficiency states, the stability of pathogens to antibiotic therapy, are unfavorable. Especially dangerous pneumonia in children under 1, caused by staphylococcus, a blue rod, Chlebseyella: mortality with them ranges from 10 to 30%.

With timely and adequate medical events, pneumonia ends with recovery. According to changes in pulmonary fabric, the following outcomes of pneumonia may be observed:

  • the complete restoration of the structure of the pulmonary fabric is 70%;
  • the formation of a portion of local pneumosclerosis - 20%;
  • the formation of the local carnigation section is 7%;
  • Reducing the segment or share in size - 2%;
  • Warming segment or share - 1%.

Prevention

The prevention measures of the development of pneumonia are to harden the body, maintaining immunity, the exclusion of the factor of hypothermia, the rehabilitation of chronic infectious foci of nasopharynx, the fight against dusting, stopping smoking and alcohol abuse. In weakened lying patients in order to prevent pneumonia, it is advisable to conduct respiratory and medical gymnastics, massage, the purpose of antiagregants (pentoxyfalline, heparin).

Pneumonia (lung inflammation) is an acute inflammatory infectious process that is localized in pulmonary fabric. Pneumonia can be typical and atypical, and with incorrectly selected treatment, it can flow into a chronic form or even lead to a fatal outcome. Every year, pneumonia takes the lives of hundreds of thousands of people, and the main reason for this is not timely treatment.

The pulmonic doctors clinic Therapy of the Yusupov Hospital are based on many years of experience with the most severe pathologies, including cases of lung inflammation, which guarantees individually selected high-quality treatment.

Inflammation of the lungs: symptoms and treatment

The first signs of inflammation of the lungs in adults

The following symptoms exist, the presence of which indicates the development of pneumonia:

  • fever (up to 40 degrees);
  • chills (muscular trembling);
  • squeezing pain in the chest;
  • cough of different types;
  • headaches, dizziness;
  • pallor skin;
  • decline in appetite;
  • cyanosis (nose sinusiness);
  • harshs when breathing;
  • convulsions;
  • nausea, vomiting;
  • diarrhea;
  • sword;
  • bias;
  • increased sweating;
  • Total weakness and reduced disability.

Finding several of the above symptoms, it is necessary to immediately consult a doctor, explaining its complaints, including the found signs of inflammation in the lungs. In adults, pneumonia develops very rapidly, and in improper treatment it is capable of leading even more serious pathologies, sometimes even to death. In this case it is very important to find an experienced and competent doctor who can put the correct diagnosis and prescribe treatment suitable for a specific clinical picture.

What are the symptoms when inflammation of the lungs in adults?

The number and intensity of primary signs may vary, however, there are a number of the most common occasions of the flow of lung inflammation:

  • Big shape of lung inflammation. The clinical picture of this variety of illness, as a rule, at the beginning of its development is similar to the manifestations of ordinary colds or influenza. The patient sharply rises the temperature to 38-39 degrees, the chills, weakness begins, and headaches are possible. Later, the symptoms are joined by cough - dry or with a small wet wet, sword and pain in the chest area. This form of the disease can last up to 3 weeks;
  • Focal pneumonia. It is characterized by a slight increase in temperature (up to 37-38 degrees), conjugate with a dry cough, later turning into wets with a wet compartment. This type of disease is also inherent weakness, pain in the right side in the chest and headache;
  • Atypical pneumonia. It may proceed with weakly pronounced symptoms or at all with the complete absence of a visible clinical picture. Cough at pneumonia in adults is missing, as well as increased temperature. The patient can complain about general malaise and minor chest pain. Such a form of illness is usually detected by chance on a fluorographic or X-ray.
  • Chronic form of pneumonia. Most often is the consequence of incorrect treatment of sharp forms, or occurs with constant contact with the external stimulus. The chronic form periodically flashes, but during the periods of the clutch is manifested only by a dry cough. During the exacerbation, all the above symptoms of any of the type of pneumonia are manifested. Cough with inflammation of the lungs in adults - wet, with the discharge of the sputum of the mucous nature, sometimes with an admixture of purulent clots. Such an ailion most often suffer from smokers or employees of chemical production.

What cough when inflammation of the lungs in adults?

Cough with pneumonia in adults is one of the factors to help determine the type of illness and even its pathogen. The main types of cough include:

  • wet or dry - the most common cough types, often occurring both in adults and in children;
  • Spastic - cough, accompanied by whistling sounds and spasms in the chest area. May be present regardless of the time of day, but the most janny during the time of wakefulness;
  • Living - a rare view of the cough, arising, as a rule, with the development of complications from other organs of the pulmonary system;
  • Cocktle - parole cough, coming the human body to the extreme degree of exhaustion. May also hurt the larynx or throat area;
  • cough with syncopes - an attacking cough, conjugate with sudden fainting states;
  • Bitonal - cough, sound alternating low and high tones. This type of cough is most often indicative of the foreign bodies in the respiratory path;
  • Stakkato - Dry, ringing cough;
  • Sipd - as a rule, is not formed when inflammation of the lungs, but is its side symptom, testifying for insufficient treatment.

Prevention of lung inflammation

To avoid the development of pneumonia, the following recommendations should be performed regularly:

  • Observe the rules of personal hygiene - do not eat face and mouth with unwashed hands;
  • Every day to perform a light physical activity, do a charging, or a lot of outdoor walking;
  • eat food enriched with fiber, vitamins and minerals (especially during the epidemic period);
  • rest regularly, if possible, avoid stress, keep the day of the day;
  • To air the room several times a day;
  • to temper the body (only not during any disease);
  • get rid of bad habits, especially smoking, as this harmful habit increases the risk of the development of inflammation of the lungs;
  • During seasonal epidemics, public places with great accumulation of people should be avoided;
  • Do not overcoole and not overheat the body;
  • If possible, make vaccination.

Timely appeal to a competent specialist guarantees in the future the lack of secondary diseases. The pulmonologists of the Yusupov hospital will provide a patient to the rapid recovery, the most struck it from the development of complications. You can contact the doctor, after posting for a consultation on the website of our clinic, or by calling.

Publication date July 31, 2018. Updated April 26, 2021.

Definition of the disease. Causes of the disease

Pneumonia (inflammation of the lungs) - a variant of acute respiratory infection, affecting a lightweight fabric. Lights consist of small fabricated formations (Alveol), which during the respiratory act of a healthy person must fill with air. With pneumonia, the alveoli is filled with liquid (exudate) and pus, which worsen gas exchange. [one]

Alveoli is normal and at pneumonia 

Complete Pneumonia (VP) - This is an acute infectious disease, especially common among residents of cities. According to the statistics provided by different authors, about 1,500,000 people are ill in pneumonia annually. In the mortality structure, pneumonium in Russia in 2015 accounted for up to 50% (in the group of diseases of the respiratory organs), in 2016 the mortality from this disease reached 21 for every 100 thousand inhabitants. [2]

The list of possible causative agents of VI includes more than a hundred microorganisms (viruses, mushrooms, simplest, but mainly bacteria). However, most often the disease is associated with a relatively small circle of microbial agents, including:

  • Pneumococcus (S. pneumoniae);
  • Mycoplasma (M. pneumoniae);
  • Chlamydofila (C. pneumoniae);
  • Hemophilic stick (H. Influenzae) ;
  • respiratory viruses;
  • enterobacteria;
  • Golden Staphylococcus (S. aureus);
  • Legionella Pneumophila (L. Pneumophila).
Patoes of community-hospital pneumonia 

Risk factors

The greatest risk of the development of pneumonia is subject to:

  • children up to two years;
  • People over 65 years old.

Other risk factors include:

  • treatment in the hospital;
  • Chronic diseases - asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or heart disease;
  • Weakened immune system - patients with HIV, as well as people who have transferred transplants receiving chemotherapy or long-receiving steroids are at high risk;
  • smoking [12] .

An unfavorable outcome risk factors are: age, male floor and related diseases [3] .

Inage pneumonia

Pneumonia can cause many different microorganisms. Many of them are transmitted from a person to a person, but not all when exposed to the same microbes develop pneumonia.

How pneumonia is transmitted

Viruses and bacteria leading to the development of pneumonia can be transmitted by air-drip and contact-domestic way. Mushroom pneumonia is usually developing when people inhale microscopic particles of the environment.

Warning

When you find similar symptoms, consult your doctor. Do not self-medicate - it is dangerous for your health!

Symptoms of pneumonia

The supercooling of the body often becomes the cause that runs the process of developing inflammation of the lungs in adults. Then the symptoms of the disease appear consistently.

How to recognize the symptoms of pneumonia:

  • unexpected and very fast rise body temperature to febrile digits (over 38 ° C);
  • nonspecific manifestations of systemic intricensication of the body (depression, lethargy, fatigue, muscle weakness, drowsiness, headache);
  • After 3-4 days, a dry cough occurs, which after a few more days becomes wet - the mucus (sputum) begins to flick, often it has a rusty or brown color;
  • There may be pain in the chest on the side of the affected light (or on both sides, if the inflammation is bilateral), which is enhanced by coughing and breathing;
  • When breathing may be listened to wheezing in the chest (not all patients are heard);
  • shortness of breath (frequent breathing) - is the result of massive lesion of the lung and manifestation of respiratory failure;
  • One of the sides of the chest (amazed) can fall behind with breathing. [four]

Signs of pneumonia in an adult:

The main symptoms of pneumonia 

Signs of pneumonia at the child

In children, the symptoms of pneumonia are usually pronounced more - they are sick with a higher temperature at which febrile cramps may develop. In addition, children, especially very small, often badly know how to dig a sputum, so it is not always possible to notice her purulent character - yellow or green color and an unpleasant smell.

Pathogenesis of pneumonia

Leading mechanisms that lead to the development of VP:

  1. penetration into the lower respiratory paths of the content of the rotogling (aspiration);
  2. Inhalation of aerosol suspension containing various microbial agents;
  3. penetration of microorganisms from the focus of infection, located outside the lungs, through blood;
  4. Moving infectious agents from neighboring affected organs (direct contact) or as a result of attachment of infection with invalid objects (weapons) into the chest. [3]

Attachment (adhesion) of microbial agents to the surface membrane cell epithelium cells of the bronchi, especially the preceding dysfunction of the celibery epithelium and change of mukiciliary clearance, is becoming the starting pulse of the development of pneumonia of lungs.

Stage of the inflammatory process 

The next step in the formation of inflammation is the reproduction of the microbial agent in the cells of the bronchial epithelium. The disorder of the integrity of the membrane of these cells leads to intensive products of biologically active substances - cytokines. They cause directional motion (chemotaxis) of macrophages, neutrophils and a number of other cells in the inflammation area.

In the following stages of the inflammatory process, consistent penetration (invasion), the vital activity of microorganisms inside the cells and products of toxins plays a very significant role. All these processes ultimately end with exudative inflammation inside Alveol and bronchiol. The phase of clinical manifestations of the disease occurs. [four]

Mechanism of development of pneumonia 

Classification and stage of development of pneumonia

In the international classification of the diseases of the 10th revision (ICD-10) in the section "H. Respiratory diseases »allocate the following types of pneumonia:

  • non-classified viral pneumonia (adenovirus and others);
  • Pneumococcal pneumonia ( S. Pneumoniae. );
  • Pneumonia caused by hemophilic stick ( H. INFLUENZAE. );
  • non-classified bacterial pneumonium caused by the impact of Klebsiella ( Klebsiella Pneumoniae. ), staphylococcus ( Staphylococcus SPP. ), streptococcus group in and other fiefococcus, intestinal sticks ( Escherichia Coli. ), other aerobic gram-negative bacteria and micallopasms ( Mycoplasma pneumoniae. ). Also, this group includes other bacterial pneumonia and pneumonia of unspecified etiology.
  • Pneumonia, which emerged due to the impact of other infectious pathogens: Chlamydia (Chlamydia SPP), as well as other infections established pathogens.
  • pneumonia arising from diseases classified in other categories (with actinomycosis, Siberian ulcer, gonorrhea, nocardiosis, salmonellosis, tularemia, abdominal title, coughus; for cytomegalovirus disease, measles, rubella, wind pump; under the Mikosakh; under parasitosis; under ornithosis, ku-fever, acute rheumatic fever, spirochetose);
  • Pneumonia without refining the pathogen.

This classification is built on the etiological principle, that is, it is based on the form of a pathogen who caused the cause of inflammation of the lungs. [five]

Also separately allocated Aspiration pneumonia , which has been attributed to inhalation or passive getting into light different substances in a large amount, most often vomit, which cause an inflammatory response.

Aspiration pneumonia leads:

  • the regulation of the gastric content in the respiratory tract at reanimation, shock, disorders of consciousness (including in alcohol and heroin intoxication);
  • Violation of swallowing in various neurological disorders and diseases of the esophagus.

Features of the treatment of aspiration pneumonia is the use of endoscopic methods for washing and purifying respiratory tract, antibacterial and expectorant drugs.

In modern clinical practice, the most popular classification is the classification that takes into account the three main factor: the conditions for the appearance of pneumonia, the features of infection of the pulmonary tissue and the status of the patient's immune system. In this aspect it is very important to distinguish Complete-headed pneumonia (VP) and Non-community pneumonia (Nosocomial, NP), since the concepts of their treatment will differ. The community is considered pneumonia, which developed outside the hospital or detected in the first 48 hours after hospitalization in the hospital. Since 2005, a number of authors outreach Pneumonia associated with medical intervention .[6]

Signs of community-friendly, nosocomial (nosocomial) and related to the provision of medical assistance of pneumonia

Classification under the conditions of the appearance of pneumonia 

Complications of pneumonia

Many authors allocate two categories of complications developing at pneumonia - "light" and "extreme".

К "Easy" complications relate:

  • parapneumonic pleurisy;
  • Empiama pleura;
  • abscess and gangrene lung;
  • acute respiratory failure;
  • Respiratory Distress syndrome.

"Extreme" complications are:

  • septic shock;
  • polyorgan deficiency;
  • meningitis;
  • myocarditis;
  • DVS syndrome.

Currently, such a division is very conditional, since intoxication syndrome in pneumonia applies to the entire body.

Pleurisy - an inflammatory disease in which an excess amount of liquid accumulates in the pleural cavity. It is observed especially often with the bacterial and viral nature of the pathogen.

Abscess liga - Pathological infectious process, manifested by the formation of a more or less limited cavity in a lightweight tissue (> 2 cm in diameter) due to the local intake of tissues and the subsequent purulent decay. Very often, the development of abscesses is infected with anaerobic microorganisms.

Empiama pleura - The accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity, quite often becomes the extremely adverse outcome of the flow of exudative pleuritis.

Empiama pleura 

Acute respiratory failure - A sharp impairment of breathing, in which the oxygen transport is reduced into lungs, and ensuring the proper gas composition of arterial blood becomes impossible. As a result of insufficient oxygen intake, "oxygen starvation" (hypoxia) occurs. Significant oxygen deficiency threatens the life of the patient and may require deploying measures of emergency intensive therapy.

Sepsis - It is the most formidable and severe complication of pneumonia. It develops when the infectious agent penetrates the infectious agent, and then its circulation on the bloodstream occurs. The feature of sepsis is to form purulent foci throughout the body. The clinical manifestations of sepsis are very bright: the body temperature rises to febrile numbers, there is a heavy intoxication syndrome, manifested by headache, nausea, vomiting, less often diarrhea, the skin becomes an "earthy" shade).

DVS syndrome - Pathology from the hemostasis system (the resulting and anticorant blood system), leading to a change in normal microcirculation in the vascular channel due to massive bleeding with the simultaneous formation of thrombov. [7]

Diagnosis of pneumonia

Diagnostic studies with VI are aimed at clarifying the diagnosis, determination of the pathogen, the assessment of the severity of the flow and forecast of the disease, as well as to detect complications.

The diagnostic algorithm for suspected VP includes:

  • detailed collection of anamnesis;
  • Analysis of patient complaints;
  • physical examination;
  • Laboratory and instrumental studies, the volume of which can be determined individually and is due to the severity of the EP's flow, the emergence and character of complications concomitant patient diseases.

The diagnosis of VP is proven when identifying a patient focal infiltration of light tissue confirmed radiologically And, at least two of the signs listed below:

  • acutely occurring fever at the beginning of the disease (body temperature> 38.0 ° C);
  • cough with sputum;
  • Physical signs identified during the full physical examination (local attitudes or small-pushed wheezes, bronchial respiration, dulling sound at percussion);
  • An increase in the total number of leukocytes (> 10 · 109 / l) and / or a halochloride shift (> 10%).

Important! In the absence or inaccessibility of x-ray confirmation of focal infiltration in the lungs, the diagnosis of "VP" is considered unspected. At the same time, the diagnosis of "pneumonia" can be justified by the data of epidanamnesis (medical history), the presence of relevant complaints and local manifestations. [3]

Left-sided lower-grade pneumonia 

A very important point in the diagnosis of pneumonium is the use of pulse oximetry method. In all clinical recommendations, the need to measure saturation from EVERY Patient with inflammation of lungs. [nine]

Pulse oximetry method 

Currently, there are a number of diagnostic techniques that allow you to divide all VN into two categories - heavy and notching. Thus, the main task of the gravity assessment scale (ballroom systems) is to identify patients with an unfavorable forecast and a high risk of complications. [eight] Examples of such scales are:

  • PSI - gravity index of pneumonia;
  • CURB-65 scale;
  • SMART-COP scale.
SMART-COP scale 

After determining the severity, the attending physician decides on the place of treatment - outpatient surveillance or hospitalization.

How to distinguish inflammation of the lungs from ARVI, flu and bronchitis

To distinguish the inflammation of the lungs from seasonal ARVI, influenza and bronchitis, visualization of lungs - radiography of the chest organs, digital fluorography or computer tomography of the chest organs. These methods allow you to detect infiltrates in lightweight fabric.

Treatment of pneumonia

Which doctor treats the disease

Pneumonia treats the therapist or pulmonologist.

When to consult a doctor

To the doctor should be applied when problems with breathing, chest pains, a permanent fever (over 38 ° C) and cough, especially with a sputter.

Indications for the disease

Treatment of patients with VI is comprehensive and based on several basic principles:

  • appointment of antimicrobial drugs;
  • adequate respiratory support if necessary;
  • the use of nonantibacterial drugs (only in the event of indications);
  • Prevention of complications.

It is extremely important to the timely detection and treatment of decompensation or exacerbation of related diseases, since their presence / severity can radically affect pneumonia. [10]

Antimicrobial preparations

Important! Antibacterial therapy (ABT) can only be appointed by a doctor, otherwise the risk of drug sustainability (resistance) of microorganisms increases sharply.

The main groups of antimicrobial preparations used in the treatment of pneumonia are:

  • Beta-lactam antibiotics (penicillins and cephalosporins);
  • macrolides;
  • Respiratory fluoroquinolones.

In some cases, in the presence of special indications, preparations of other groups (tetracycles, aminoglycosides, lincoosamides, vancomycin, linoxolid can be used.

In viral pneumonia (usually associated with the influenza virus), inhibitors of neuraminidase (oseltamivir and zanamivir) are most important, which have high activity against influenza a and b. viruses

In the treatment of outpatient patients, preference is given to oral antibiotics (usually in tableted form). In the treatment of patients in the hospital, a stepped approach is used: begin with parenteral administration of antibiotics (intravenous path preferred), in the future, as the patient's clinical stabilization is translated to oral administration (tablets).

The duration of antimicrobial therapy of the Night EP is determined individually, with a heavy VP of unspecified etiology - continues at least 10 days. The implementation of longer courses ABT (from 14 to 21 days) is recommended only in the development of the complications of the disease, the presence of foci of inflammation outside of light tissue, infection S.Aureus. , Legionella SPP. ., Nonfernifying microorganisms ( P.aeruginosa. ).

In clinical practice, it is very important to decide on the possibility of stopping AMT at the right moment. For this, sufficiency criteria have been developed:

  • resistant decrease in body temperature <37.2ºС for at least 48 hours;
  • lack of manifestations of intoxication syndrome;
  • normalization of breathing frequency (<20 / min);
  • No purulent sputum;
  • Reducing the number of leukocytes in the blood (<10 · 109 / l), neutrophils (<80%), young forms (<6%);
  • Lack of negative dynamics on the radiograph. [3]

Respiratory support

Acute respiratory failure (ODN) is the leading cause of the death of patients with VP, therefore adequate respiratory support is the most important component of the treatment of such patients (of course, in conjunction with systemic antibiotic therapy). Respiratory support is shown to all patients with VEs with RO2 <55 mm Hg. or SrO2 <88% (with air breathing). [four]

Oxygen therapy It is carried out in the case of a moderate lack of oxygen in the blood with a simple nasal mask or mask with a consumable bag.

Oxygen therapy 

Artificial ventilation lungs (IVL) is used in the event that even with oxygen inhalations, the target level of blood saturation oxygen is not achieved.

Artificial ventilation lungs 

Indications to the IVL at one on the background of the VP:

  • Absolute: Stop breathing, violation of consciousness (copor, coma), psychomotor excitation, unstable hemodynamics (blood pressure <70 mm Hg, heart rate <50 / min);
  • Relative: ChDD> 35 / min RAO2 / FIIO2 <150 mm Hg, Raising Raso2> 20% of the initial level, violation of consciousness.

Neanctibacterial therapy

Presented by three major grades of drugs:

  • Systemic glucocorticosteroids (GKS);
  • intravenous immunoglobulins (IG);
  • Some immunostimulants.

Glucocorticosteroids

The question of the appointment of GCS is considered primarily for the heavy EP, which is complicated by septic shock. GKS contribute to the limitation of the destructive influence of systemic inflammation using various genomic and non-mentioned effects.

Immunoglobulins

The use of the IG for the treatment of infections complicated by sepsis is based on a variety of effects: from neutralizing bacterial toxins until the cell reactivity is reduced during the phenomenon of the "immune paralysis".

In the treatment of sepsis, polyclonal ig, which, compared with placebo, reduce the relative risk of death. The routine use of intravenous IG patients with severe VP complicated by sepsis is impractical.

Immunostimulators

Interest in these drugs is associated with their ability to strengthen phagocytosis, education and maturation of neutrophils. However, due to the lack of a convincing evidence base, they currently have practically not used in routine practice.

Contraindications for the disease

At pneumonia, it is extremely recommended to engage in self-medication, especially using antibiotics. At the moment there are many groups of antibacterial drugs, for the selection of adequate therapy, the doctor will ask several questions about the history of the disease, drug intolerance, the previous use of antibiotics and what other preparations the patient takes regularly. In the acute period of the disease, it is recommended to refrain from the active use of physiotherapeutic treatment methods, especially related to the heating of tissues.

Forecast. Prevention

A favorable or unfavorable outcome of the VP depends on several factors:

  • the age of the patient;
  • the severity of the flow;
  • The presence / absence of concomitant diseases.

The risk of death is minimal in young and middle-aged patients with the well-mentioned pulp and non-accompanying diseases. In patients of elderly and senile age, there is a risk of fatal outcome in the presence of significant concomitant pathology (COPD, malignant neoplasms, alcoholism, diabetes, chronic heart failure), as well as in situations of development of heavy VP.

The main cause of the death of patients with severe VP is a steady lack of oxygen, septic shock and insufficiency of all organs and systems. According to research, the main factors associated with the unfavorable prognosis of patients with severe VI, are:

  • Age> 70 years;
  • Conducting IVL;
  • bilateral localization of pneumonia;
  • Septic and infection with a blue-purulent stick.

Speaking of Russia, it should be mentioned later to refer to patients for qualified medical care. This becomes an additional risk factor for an unfavorable outcome.

How to prevent pneumonia

At the moment, highly effective means are available throughout the world, allowing themselves to protect themselves and their relatives from this formidable disease - pneumococcal and influenza vaccines.

In order to specific prophylaxis of pneumococcal infections, including pneumonia, two vaccines are used in adults:

  • 23-valence non-conjugated vaccine (contains purified capsular polysaccharide antigens 23 serotypes S.pneumoniae. );
  • 13-valence pneumococcal conjugated vaccine.

All patients with high risk of pneumonium should be protected by such vaccines. [eleven]

Inflammation of the lungs and pneumonia What is pneumonia? The difference between pneumonia and lung inflammation. Symptoms of pneumonia at coronavirus How much temperature is held at pneumonia Types of pneumonia Pneumonia without temperature Polycegimentary pneumonia Heat pneumonia Atypical pneumonia Complete pneumonia Viral pneumonia Brewing pneumonia Pneumonia without cough Interstitial pneumonia Pneumatic pneumonia Mycoplasma pneumonia Pneumonia in children Inage pneumonia Treatment of pneumonia How many days is the pneumonia Bilateral pneumonia in an adult. Duration of treatment Clinical recommendations Treatment of pneumonia at home Treatment with folk remedies Preparations for the treatment of pneumonia Antibiotics at pneumonia Breathing exercises For the prevention of pneumonia For rehabilitation after pneumonia

Inflammation of the lungs and pneumonia

What is pneumonia? The difference between pneumonia and lung inflammation.

Pneumonia or lung inflammation is a group of diseases in which inflammatory processes develop in the lungs. There is no difference between pneumonia and lung inflammation . These processes most often become the results of infections, viruses, microbes, and pneumonia is often infectious. Irriters are striking the pulmonary tissue, and an inflammatory process develops intensive treatment.

Pneumonia can be a consequence:

  • unrealized colds, ARVI, flu or bronchitis;
  • the effects of viruses, bacteria and fungi, for example, chlamydia, legionell, mycoplasmas;
  • noncomfortable temperature (supercooling of the lungs);
  • the effects of poisonous particles in air or radiation;
  • Complications after an allergic cough.

Symptoms of pneumonia

  • temperature increase;
  • shortness of breath and cough;
  • chills, fever;
  • weakness , headache;
  • complicated inhale, chest pain with deep breath;
  • sweating;
  • Signs of intoxication.

Increased temperatures up to 38-39 degrees - one of the main signs of lung inflammation. It is accompanied by a strong chills, can rise and descend during the day within 1-1.5 degrees. Increased temperature can last up to 10 days.

In many ways, severe weakness, increased sweating, headache, violation of the chair and abdominal pain in pneumonia are associated with the intrication of the body, its poisoning of tissue decay products and toxins.

Today, much attention is paid to psychosomatics of pneumonia. Long stress, weakening the body, chronic diseases and serious overloads of an unprepared organism can become soil for the development of pulmonary diseases and lead to inflammation of the lower respiratory tract.

At the same time, the usual therapy with antibiotics can be unsuccessful, a long recovery period is necessary to normalize the functions of the nervous system and the restoration of the body's forces.

Symptoms of pneumonia at coronavirus

Pneumonia can be caused by a number of viruses, the main of which is called adenoviruses, influenza viruses and coronaviruses (including those dangerous SARS-COV-1, Mers-COV and the SARS-COV-2 pandemic).

If the coronavirus causes pneumonia, usually this process is "launched" by conventional cold symptoms: a temperature of 37.5-38 degrees, pain in the throat, a loss of smell, cough, blessed body and pain in the muscles. As a rule, these symptoms last about 7 days. After that, the temperature rises up to 40 degrees, intoxication is rapidly increasing, shortness of breath and thoracic pain appear. Fever, chills, high sweating and severe weakness - also symptoms of the development of coronavirus infection in pneumonia.

The cough is dry, or with unseen wet, sometimes it can be a rusty shade due to the destruction of capillaries.

One of the distinguishing symptoms of pneumonia at Coronavirus is a limited breath, with a serious course of the disease, almost the impossibility of independent breath. With non-complicated inflammation of the lungs, heavy shortness of breath is observed in the defeat of several pulmonary fractions and is not manifested alone. Pneumonia caused by coronavirus is characterized by a frequency of breathing more than 22, the patient constantly experiences a sense of lack of air, the impossibility of a full breath.

Respiratory failure leads to the sinusiness of the nasolabial triangle, the patients have a forced breathing, in which intercostal muscles are actively involved. Patients seek to accept unusual postures to relieve inhale. Due to the lack of oxygen intake in the brain, patients may experience confusion, panic attacks or fainting.

How much temperature is held at pneumonia

There are two types of temperature at lung inflammation - subfebrile and high.

With pneumonia, the temperature can sharply grow to the indicators of 39-40 degrees and can hold over two weeks. It is important to remember that the decrease in temperature is important to carry out a doctor under observation and fully comply with the individual protocol of antibacterial therapy. Although the high temperature is a symptom, often for pneumonia, a decrease in it is part of the total treatment.

When the body temperature indicators reaches marks in 40 degrees, you need to call an ambulance . This increase in temperature can say that the immunity of the body does not cope with infection, and he needs emergency assistance.

Subfebrile temperature at pneumonia is within 37-38 degrees. In the absence of severe shortness of breath, it is usually not recommended to bring down this temperature. It provides the body with the possibility of an immune response to a viral attack. Increased temperature signals the lack of organism's own resources to suppress viral infection.

The temperature is normalized when the organism's viral lesion is reflected after antibacterial therapy.

Types of pneumonia

Pneumonia without temperature

Pretty dangerous view - asymptomatic pneumonia not manifested with increased temperature. In this case, there may be no symptoms except weakness. The body may not signal the disease even a cough. Often, such a situation is a consequence of a weak immune response and the inability of the body to deal with the virus.

Doctors advise to pay attention to the complexion of a person, often on it is characteristic spotted blush against the background of very pale leather. Human breathing occurs with a whistle. When moving, shortness of breath and a frequent pulse appear. The body is weak, quickly tires, pain in the chest and difficult to breathe.

Asymptomatic pneumonia is dangerous in that the cough is not manifested, and the unnecessary sputum does not go out. The infectious process is stood in the lungs. Often it is a consequence of unrealistic colds or bronchitis.

For diagnosis, the chest radiograph is carried out in 2 projections. The main sign of pneumonia is limited darkening of the pulmonary fabric.

Polycegimentary pneumonia

Two-sided polysegnatory pneumonia strikes several fabric segments of both lungs. Children are often ill under the age of one year and people with low immunity. The first stage of the disease may be asymptomatic or similar to ORVI .

The development of symptoms of bilateral pneumonia is a cough with a springs, shortness of breath, wet wheezes in lungs, chest pain. This clinical picture is accompanied by an increase in temperature to 39-40 degrees, fever, high sweating, tachycardia, headaches and change in consciousness. With a regular pneumonia in bronchi, a wet wet occurs, which is difficult to depart due to the progressive edema.

Heat pneumonia

Acute form of the disease with the flow of the inflammatory process on a limited piece of lung tissue (loss). The symptoms of this form of pneumonia are fever, dry cough or a slight compartment of sputum, pain in the chest, general weakness.

Often, focal pneumonia is a complication of sharp respiratory infections and bronchitis. This diagnosis increases during seasonal ORVI and flu.

The body temperature rises to 38-39 degrees, sometimes it can be normal or have subfebris. Breathing is rapid up to 25-30 units, tachycardia is shown to 110 ° C. in min.

Fever is usually terminated after 3-5 days after the start of antibacterial therapy. The term of removal of symptoms of focal pneumonia is 3-4 weeks.

Atypical pneumonia

Atypical pneumonia is an infectious disease accompanied by inflammation. This lung defeat causes uncharacteric pathogens - viruses, mycoplasma, chlamydia and other numerous infectious agents.

This type of disease differs from the "typical" pneumonia caused by the bacterial cockkalo flora. Symptoms of atypical pneumonia:

  • weakness,
  • Head and muscle pain,
  • dyspnea,
  • sweating
  • fever,
  • cough.

To diagnose atypical pneumonia, it is necessary to determine the pathogen, for which the methods of PCR, reef, culture sowing are used. It is necessary to carry out the lung radiography. After identifying the pathogen, medication is prescribed.

Atypical pneumonia caused by coronavirus is called the "sharp respiratory disease syndrome" (SARS). It is difficult to identify the infectious agent, and therefore for treatment, due to the rapid mutation of the virus.

Infection of atypical pneumonia is airborne droplet. The incubation period is from 3 to 10 days. Depending on the causative agent, atypical pneumonia is divided into:

  • Fever Q,
  • chlamydial pneumonia
  • legionell pneumonia,
  • Heavy acute respiratory syndrome,
  • Mycoplasma pneumonia, etc.

Among the drugs recommended for the treatment of atypical pneumonia, the basis is Ribavirin, which is widely used today for the treatment of pneumonia caused by coronavirus. After the start of treatment, corticosteroids are introduced into the protocol, the blood plasma transfusion is used in severe cases. Oxygen therapy, diuretics are used to prepare for the prevention of pulmonary edema, infusion therapy for removing intoxication, symptomatic treatment from cough and symptoms of respiratory syndrome.

Complete pneumonia

Community-hospital pneumonia is not associated with the stay of the patient in the hospital. This diagnosis is made when the sick was not atponed or sick with pneumonia, no less than 14 days after discharge or no later than two days after hospitalization.

Complete-headed pneumonia develops due to the impact of pathogenic microorganisms on the respiratory tract. This happens with an imaginary history of cardiovascular or metabolic diseases, the unhealthy lifestyle of the patient, weak immunite, the state of old age or with a strong overcooling.

Pneumococci, streptococci, hemophilic stick, staphylococci, chlamydia, legionells, adenoviruses penetrate the human body in living conditions, in places of large accumulation of people with air-droplet, falling into the air when coughing and sneezing From the respiratory tract of the patient.

With reduced immunite and other adverse factors, the drainage system of the lungs is broken, and pathogenic microorganisms remain in them, causing an inflammatory process.

Medical therapy under the protocol associated with identified bacteriological analysis is applied to the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia.

Viral pneumonia

Viral pneumonia is caused by respiratory viruses, often well familiar to us. These are influenza viruses, paragrippa, enteroviruses, adenoviruses. Therapy of viral pneumonium is the reception of antiviral and symptomatic means.

Symptoms of viral pneumonia sharp:

  • sharp rise in temperature
  • Inxication syndrome,
  • strong productive wet cough,
  • Pain in the lungs.

The diagnosis of viral pneumonia is carried out on the basis of laboratory data.

Often, viral pneumonia develops on an ARVI, in this case, typical symptoms of respiratory disease are aggravated for several days with a strong fever, cyanosis, a cough with a "rusty" color, wheezing in lungs and chest pain.

Viral pneumonia caused by the influenza virus is often double-sided, with focal lung lesions. At the same time, among viral pneumonia, there are often cases of relatively light shape of the disease with moderate symptoms and rapid recovery.

In childhood, viral pneumonia accounts for 90% of all types of this disease. In severe cases, viral pneumonia occurs in children hard:

  • with high temperatures
  • vomit
  • intense symptoms of intoxication,
  • lack of appetite or full eating failure,
  • Strong cough.

In severe cases, inpatient treatment is appointed.

Adults are sick with viral pneumonia less often than children (the percentage of viral pneumonium among other types of disease does not exceed 35%). More often than 65 years old viral pneumonia suffer. The frequency of the disease increases in the autumn-winter period.

Brewing pneumonia

Brewing pneumonia is an acute infectious disease. This diagnosis is made by the defeat of one or more lung fractions when the fibrinous traffic and fibrinous overlaps on Plegre appeared in the alveoli.

The most frequent causative agents of bruboral pneumonia - pneumococci, and the main cause of the disease is to reduce immunity.

The disease begins acutely, with an increase in temperature to 39 degrees, chills, pain in the chest. The dry cough is replaced by the release of "rusty" sputum. Six expressed shortness of breath. Breath hard, with wet and dry wheezes. Subsequently, voice jitter is detected due to impaired breathing. Brewing pneumonia may be accompanied by a violation of cardiac rhythms, a decrease in pressure and strong headaches.

At the end of the acute phase of the disease, respiration is normalized, with a frequent pulse and a decrease in blood pressure can still be disturbed by the patient.

The bruboral inflammation of the lungs is the disease of adults, and it is treated in the hospital in the therapy separation.

Pneumonia without cough

Pneumonia is most often accompanied by a characteristic set of symptoms, however, it happens that the disease occurs in a hidden form. Asymptomatic pneumonia is difficult to diagnose, as the patient cannot recognize the health problem according to explicit features. Latent pneumonia can occur without temperature and even without wheezing in the lungs.

Most often, the hidden pneumonia is ill people over 60 years old.

Violations in the work of the immune system is the main cause of asymptomatic pneumonia. It can also develop due to improper reception of cough drugs during the respiratory disease. With a bad sputum removal, it accumulates in the lungs and becomes a medium for breeding pathogenic flora.

Complication after influenza, bronchitis or ORVI is another cause of asymptomatic pneumonia.

If there is no cough, but there are suspicions of the disease, you need to listen to the following symptoms:

  • strengthening weakness
  • Reduced performance
  • Strong headaches.

In the patient, strong sweating, frequent pulse, shortness of breath and pain in the chest. Temperature can increase.

To detect pneumonia with hidden symptoms, it is necessary to carry out deep diagnostics, which will help determine the stage and severity of the disease.

Interstitial pneumonia

Interstitial pneumonia is an inflammatory process, in which the alveoli walls and the parenchyma junction tissue suffer. Disease cause infectious agents:

  • Mycoplasma,
  • chlamydia
  • Pneumocists,
  • Legionella
  • Respiratory viruses
  • Herpes virus.

Also, interstitial pneumonia can be a reaction to dust. Defeat with interstitial pneumonia focal or diffuse, and it can cover a share or everything easy.

Symptoms of the disease:

  • dyspnea,
  • dry cough,
  • Pain in the chest,
  • temperature up to 38 degrees,
  • Cardiopulmonary failure.

The disease is determined using CT and laboratory diagnostics.

The disease can occur hard, when it is high, the likelihood of lung fibrosis. In the risk group:

  • Smokers,
  • HIV-infected
  • People with alcoholism.

Interstitial pneumonia can flow in chronic form (more than 12 months), all this time the patient is limited in activity, suffers from severe breath, high fatigue. Often there is a strong weight loss.

Treatment includes oxygen therapy, corticosteroids, cytostatics. By reducing the respiratory function, the IVL is prescribed.

Pneumatic pneumonia

Pneumatic pneumonia refers to atypical pneumonia. Her infectious agents - Simple microorganisms Pneumocists. The disease is transmitted by air-droplet and often develops in people with an affected immune system.

In the risk risk group of pneumatic pneumonia:

  • elderly people,
  • Sick HIV,
  • tuberculosis
  • Patients with blood diseases,
  • Patients taking immunosuppressants.

The disease may have relapses. In particular, in patients with HIV infection in the AIDS stage, the likelihood of re-illness is 25%.

Pneumocists fall into the body through the respiratory tract, actively multiply, provoke the appearance of a large amount of mucus and exchange products. Finding into the blood, infectious agents provoke the formation of specific antibodies. Alveola are amazed, gas exchange is broken. In conditions of respiratory failure, fibrosis of lungs is developing, subsequently - emphysema and pneumothorax.

Symptoms of the disease first look like signs like ARVI or Larygitis. The period of the first stage is up to 10 days. Weakness, strong cough, decreased body weight in the second stage of the disease is enhanced by a strong breath. Skin covers acquire a shiny shade. Cough becomes productive with difficult wetting.

The third stage brings relief symptoms, but wheezes in the lungs and symptoms of weakness can still be maintained.

Treatment of pneumatic pneumonia occurs in the hospital and includes antibacterial and symptomatic treatment.

Mycoplasma pneumonia

Mycoplasma pneumonia is an atypical pulmonary infection. Infectious agent - Mycoplasma Pneumoniae. This type of pneumonia is characterized by:

  • obsessive cough
  • subfebilitation
  • pain in the chest and muscular pains,
  • Aclays and violations in the work of the gastrointestinal tract.

Mycoplasma pneumonia more often sick children, teens and adults up to 35 years old.

With a high prevalence of the disease, mycoplasma is malpressible in external conditions. They react to change in temperature (in particular, on heating), do not grow in dry environments.

These microorganisms often become causes of bronchitis, bronchial asthma, they are also able to cause a respiratory pathology (otitis, encephalitis, meningitis, anemia).

The incubation period in mycoplasma pneumonia is usually 12-14 days. The disease rarely begins acutely, more often is the appearance of symptoms of laryngitis, less often - bronchitis. Weakness, sweating, temperature rise to 38 degrees also accompanies the beginning of the disease.

Complications of mycoplasma pneumonia can be:

  • Stevens-Johnson's syndrome,
  • Hyien Barre Syndrome,
  • myelitis,
  • encephalitis,
  • meningitis.

Recognizing the disease at an early stage, it can be cured for two or three weeks. Macrolids, fluoroquinolones, bright agents, expectorant means are prescribed for treatment, immunomodulators, physiotics, massages, respiratory gymnastics.

Pneumonia in children

Pneumonia in children is an acute infectious damage to the lungs. She proceeds short. Cough and symptoms of intoxication.

The intrauterine infection of pneumonia occurs due to herpes viruses, chlamydia. Medicine already known cases of intrauterine pneumonia caused by coronavirus.

In the first year of life, the sorcerer and hemophilic wand. Preschoolers are sick pneumonia, the reason for which is:

  • infection with hemophilic and intestinal chopsticks,
  • Golden Staphylococcus
  • Sinnaya wand.

Schoolchildren more often sick atypical pneumonia.

In the risk risk group of pneumonia - children with immunodeficiency, suffering stress, cooling or suffering from chronic infectious diseases.

Treatment of pneumonia in children consists of antibiotics, antipyretic, expectorant, bronchoditics. After the acute phase and during the rehabilitation period, physiotherapy, massage and therapeutic physical education are shown.

Children's pneumonia in case of timely detection is treated at home, and serious cases in the hospital, and quite successful. At children's pneumonia, hospitalization is not always shown, and if parents will continue to receive receptions, children's pneumonia is cured within 2-3 weeks.

Inage pneumonia

Pneumonia or not - depends on its type and causes of the disease. At the same time, directly pneumonia cannot be infected, but the pathogenic microflora, penetrating another person in the body, can become a source of inflammatory process, in that force and pneumonia.

Inflammation of the lungs can cause bacteria, viruses, fungi, simplest. The greatest danger to others, the person is at the initial stage of the disease, when coughing and the cough is distinguished by infectious agents.

But it is important to remember that even when infected, the development of the inflammatory process may not happen. Strong immunity does not give to develop pneumonia, and the whole struggle with the infectious agent occurs in the upper respiratory tract. In other words, the same infectious agent may cause different reactions from different people: from light ARVI to severe pneumonia.

The risk of sick pneumonia is present more:

  • in children up to 1.5 years,
  • old people,
  • those who suffer immunodeficiency
  • suffering from chronic pathologies of the cardiovascular system, bronchi and lungs, kidneys,
  • Diabetic
  • allergy
  • Smokers.

It is important to remember, some types of pneumonia are not contagious. These are the types of disease that are not related to infection. For example, the inflammation of the lungs, which arose due to the stagnation of the liquid in the respiratory tract.

Treatment of pneumonia

How many days is the pneumonia

The duration of treatment depends on the root causes of pneumonia. Pneumococcal infection can be defeated in 7 days. Legionells or staphylococcus cause pneumonia that needs to be treated at least three weeks. The cynical wand will force therapy to forty-two days. Complicated pneumonia has to be treated until two months.

The focal pneumonia is treated faster than secrecy. In the first case, the clinical picture becomes favorable for ten days, in the second treatment takes about a month.

Bilateral pneumonia in an adult. Duration of treatment

In predicting the treatment of bilateral pneumonia, an adult should always take into account chronic diseases, the state of immunity and causes of the disease. Patients with severe damage to metabolism, diabetes mellitus, high degree of hypertension, heart diseases are chances of longer treatment and long rehabilitation after pneumonia. The clinical picture can detect the symptoms of pneumonia to two months from the beginning of therapy, while the strong body can cure in one month.

Clinical recommendations

The latest clinical recommendations for the treatment of pneumonia are contained in the letter of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation of March 6, 2020 N 30-4 / I2-2702 "On the algorithm for the provision of medical assistance to the adult population with community-hospital pneumonia." The document is relevant, and determines the procedure for the diagnosis and treatment of all types of community-hospital pneumonia (those that have developed outside the hospital, or diagnosed in the first 48 hours from the moment of hospitalization). The letter determines the rules of hospitalization in pneumonia, the deadlines for the start of antibacterial therapy after the diagnosis, the classification of the forms of the disease according to the severity, based on the symptoms.

Clinical recommendations give the most detailed information on the diagnosis and treatment of pneumonia, but they are addressed to doctors and medical personnel. Everyone can find on the network and read them to raise awareness of the disease, but In no case should not be engaged in self-diagnosis and self-treatment for prescribed protocols of antibacterial therapy . At the first signs of ailment, you should consult a doctor.

Treatment of pneumonia at home

Clinical recommendations give clear criteria for hospitalizing patients with pneumonia. Patients with a light form of the disease and many of the pneumonia suffering from the middle severity without burdened history are home treatment.

The main rules for the treatment of pneumonia at home:

  • compliance with the protocol of antibacterial therapy;
  • compliance with the beddown first days and abundant drink for removing the symptoms of intoxication;
  • the need to get up every 5-6 hours and slightly move up to 20 minutes;
  • After the normalization of the clinical picture, short walks are shown;
  • Full, but light food;
  • Complete smoking;
  • Support for air humidity in the room within 60-70%.

Treatment with folk remedies

Many in the treatment of pneumonia drugs are resorting to people supporting treatment with funds. The most common of them are medicinal herbs. Herbraises help expectoration, reduce the inflammatory process, remove bronchospasms.

Herbs reduce the swelling and possess a diuretic effect, activate the activity of the immune system, which is well supported by the therapeutic course.

It is useful to drink drinks with a rich content of vitamin C: a decoction of rosehip, cranberries, lingers, viburnum.

In the treatment of pneumonia, garlic, honey, are used by folk remedies, make various compresses and tincture. With the abundance of folk recipes for the treatment of pneumonia it is important to remember that Consultation with the doctor is necessary in each case of their application . Each folk remedy should be built into therapy and do not interfere with its successful flow. Therefore, if you wish to resort to the help of traditional medicine, it is worth not overloading the body and follow the principles of rationality and consistency with the main protocol of treatment.

Preparations for the treatment of pneumonia

Antibiotics at pneumonia

Treatment of patients with a light form of pneumonia takes place at home. It is usually possible to cure it with pills or suspensions. The doctor prescribes the antibiotics of the β-lactam row (amoxicillin, amuxyne, solutab). For older patients or with severe chronic diseases, protected penicillins and fluoroquinolones are prescribed (amoxiclav, Flemoclav Soluteab, Aveoks).

For the treatment of patients with severe and extremely severe pneumonia, drugs III and IV generations are used, which have a bactericidal effect, fully destroying the cells of the pathogen. Among the representatives of cephalosporins III generation are oral and parenteral forms. In the first subgroup, supraks are common in capsules and suspensions, cedaxes in capsules and spectroseph in capsules, cepditogen, ceftazidim, cefoperazone

To destroy mycoplasm at pneumonia, antibiotics of macrolides are suitable against atypical flora, tetracyclines - reserve drugs, doxycycline (Unidox Solutab).

Adequate therapy of pneumonia can not do without antibiotics. This is the only modern and effective measure to eliminate the cause of the disease - microorganisms. All prescriptions of drugs must be controlled by the doctor, self-medium is fraught with the aggravation of the course of the disease and the development of the immunity of bacterial cells to the effects of antibiotics.

Breathing exercises

For the prevention of pneumonia

Today, the prevention of pneumonia is one of the most important in the complex of health practices and care for the state of the human body. It became obvious that lung damage is a real threat, much more massive and relevant than it seemed recently many of us. The coronavirus pandemic made adjustments not only to our lifestyle, but also made the most relevant care of our respiratory system, about its healthy and full-fledged state.

One of the most efficient ways of preventing pneumonia is regular respiratory training with a simulator "Samolader". And there are reasonable causes and many years of indisputable confirmation.

The breathing exercises strengthen the respiratory muscles, which increase the mobility of the chest and the diaphragm. Effective movements of the respiratory muscles increase the amount of chest and lungs. This provides maximum driving ventilation and air circulation in the alveoli and increases the use of oxygen use in the lungs and its admission to the tissues.

Maintaining normal light volumes and regular respiratory tracting forms the right respiratory rhythm. As a result, the respiratory frequency is normalized, its minute volume and other indicators that are violated due to stress, hypodynamine, chronic diseases. Physiologically correct breathing is preserved for a long time.

Breathing training maintain elasticity of light tissue. This increases the vital capacity of the lungs, prevents the development of fibrosis and other changes in light tissue. CO2 eliminates the spasm of the bronchi, which also increases the effectiveness of breathing.

Breathing training increases the effectiveness of a small circle of blood circulation. This is especially important for the people of old age, because one of the frequent causes of the pneumonia of the elderly - blood in a small circle.

As a result of the restoration of the functions of the respiratory system and blood circulation, a decrease in the inflammatory process occurs, the prevention of stagnant phenomena in bronchops and lungs and resorption of mucus and exudate is carried out.

In addition, the "self-sharp" compensates for the lack of physical activity, and respiratory training, as well as exercise, contribute to the production of natural antioxidant (superoxiddismutase) impeding the development of pneumonia.

All these arguments are the result of deep numerous studies related to the study of the effects of respiratory training with the "self-coach" on human lungs and the prevention of pneumonia, as well as the experience of people of different ages and a different level of health.

Today, millions of people from different countries of the world are trained with "self-coastal" for the sake of preventing the development of pneumonia - one of the main dangers for the body during the pandemic period.

If you want to get one of the most effective ways of care about your respiratory system, an indispensable assistant for the prevention of pneumonia, acquire the respiratory simulator "Samolader". Many years of experience proved its effectiveness, availability and the highest results in maintaining the health of the lungs.

For rehabilitation after pneumonia

In a difficult period of threats to a high viral load on the body, it is important to know how to quickly return the shape after pneumonia and give your easy to earn money again. First, it is important to comply with general rules for concerns about yourself and your health. Sleep at least 8 o'clock at night and a couple of hours in the afternoon, well eat, not forgetting about vitamins A, B, C and calcium, to air the room every three hours.

Special attention should be paid to your light, devote time to respiratory training to improve the pulmonary muscles. Due to the respiratory training with the simulator "Samozdrav" will be dissolved exudate, the wet branch will be easier, the respiratory tract will be cleaned, the pulmonary fabric will retain health and elasticity, normalizes the tissue exchange and inxication will be eliminated, accompanying the acute stage of the disease. Healthy breathing and normal amount of breath will be restored, the sword will leave due to the normalization of the level of oxygen in the body,

In the process of breathing training with the simulator "Samolader", rehabilitation after inflammation of the lungs will be successful, will pass quickly and comfortably, and you will be able to regain their vital energy in a natural way - training through proper and healthy breathing.

Overview

Pneumonia (lung inflammation) is inflammation of the fabric in one or both light caused by infection.

At the end of the breathing tubes in the lungs (alveolar strokes) there are tiny bags filled with air (alveoli) collected in bundles. With pneumonia, these bags are inflamed and filled with liquid.

How are the human alveoli with pneumonia

The most common symptoms of pneumonia:

  • cough;
  • heat;
  • labored breathing.

The most common cause of pneumonia is a pneumococcal infection, however there are many other types of bacteria and viruses causing pneumonia.

Patients with a light form of pneumonia are usually treated at home. They give antibiotics, abundant drink and provide peace. People with good health usually recover without any consequences.

In patients with other diseases, pneumonia can be in severe, and they may need treatment in the hospital. This is caused by the fact that pneumonia can give complications, which, depending on the state of health and the age of the patient, can even lead to a fatal outcome.

According to various data in Russia, pneumonia sicks every year 1-2 million people. People often sick pneumonia in autumn and winter. Mortality from community-hospital pneumoniums in Russia is of different data from 1% to 5%, but among patients requiring hospitalization and in older people, this indicator is many times more. Pneumonia can be sick at any age.

Symptoms of pneumonia

Symptoms of pneumonia can develop very quickly (for 24 to 48 hours) or relatively slowly, within a few days. The manifestations of the disease differ and can be similar to the symptoms of other respiratory infections, such as acute bronchitis.

For pneumonia is characterized by cough. It may be dry or accompanied by the release of sputum (thick mucus) of yellow, green, brownish color or even bleeding.

Other common symptoms:

  • Difficult breathing - the breaths are frequent and shallow, possibly shortness of breath even during rest;
  • heart palpitations;
  • a strong increase in body temperature;
  • common poor well-being;
  • sweating and chills;
  • lack of appetite;
  • Pain in the chest.

Among the less common symptoms are the following:

  • cough with blood (hemopying);
  • headaches;
  • fatigue;
  • nausea;
  • vomiting;
  • whistling breathing;
  • pain in the joints and muscles;
  • Loss of orientation in time and space (especially in the elderly).

If you have discovered the symptoms of pneumonia, consult a doctor to diagnose. If you have pronounced symptoms, in particular, rapid breathing, pain or disorientation in space, consult a doctor immediately.

Causes of pneumonia

The most common cause of pneumonia is infection, usually bacterial origin.

However, pneumonia causes various types of bacteria, viruses and (occasionally) fungi, depending on where pneumonia began. For example, microorganisms causing pneumonia, praised in the hospital, differ from those that can cause it in ordinary life.

Microorganisms that cause infection usually fall into the lungs when inhaled. In rare cases, pneumonia can be caused by infection in another body part. Then the pathogen of pneumonia penetrates into the lungs through blood.

Below in detail the four types of pneumonia are described.

Bacterial pneumonia

The most common cause of pneumonia in adults - Bacteria Streptococcus Pneumoniae. This form of pneumonia is sometimes called pneumococcal.

Less often, the causative agents of pneumonia are other types of bacteria, including:

  • Haemophilus influenzae;
  • Staphylococcus aureus;
  • Mycoplasma Pneumoniae (outbreaks of morbidity occur on average every 4-7 years, usually among children and young people).

In very rare cases, pneumonia causes the following bacteria:

  • Chlamydophila Psittaci: This bacterium is a rare form of pneumonia, which is called ornithosis or psitactosis, which is transmitted to people from infected birds, such as pigeons, canary, long-tailed and wavy parrots (this form of pneumonia is also called a parrot disease or a parrot fever);
  • Chlamydophila pneumoniae;
  • Legionella Pneumophila: Causes Legionells, or "Legionnaire Disease", an unusual form of pneumonia.

Viral pneumonia Possible way of transferring pneumonia

Viruses can also cause pneumonia, most often it is a respiratory syncitial virus (RSV) and sometimes influenza virus type A or B. Viruses are most often becoming pathogens of pneumonia in young children.

Aspiration pneumonia

In rare cases, the cause of pneumonia is getting into the lungs

  • vomiting;
  • foreign bodies, such as peanuts;
  • harmful substance, such as smoke or chemical.

An inhaled object or substance causes irritation of the lungs or damages them. This phenomenon is called "aspiration pneumonia."

Fungal pneumonia

Pneumonia caused by fungal infection of the lungs is rarely found in people with strong health. More often, it affects people with a weakened immune system (see below). Although fungal pneumonia is rare, people travel more often traveling to the places where this type of infection is more common: individual regions of the United States, Mexico, South America and Africa.

Some medical names of fungal pneumonia: histoplasmosis, cocidioidomycosis and blastomicosis.

Risk Groups for Lung Inflammation

People in the following groups are more susceptible to risk of pneumonia disease:

  • Breast babies and young children;
  • elderly people;
  • smokers;
  • patients with other diseases;
  • People with a weakened immunity.

Diseases increasing the likelihood of pneumonia disease:

  • Other lung diseases, such as asthma or fibrosis (fibrous-cystic degeneration or cystic fibrosis);
  • heart diseases;
  • diseases of the kidneys and liver;
  • Weed immunity.

Your immunity can weaken:

  • recently suffered disease, such as influenza;
  • cancer treatment, such as chemotherapy;
  • Some medicines taken after the transplantation of the body (they are specifically taken to weaken the immune system, thereby reducing the rehabilitation of the transplanted organ);
  • HIV or AIDS.

Diagnosis of pneumonia

The doctor often can diagnose pneumonia, interviewing you about the symptoms and inspected the chest. In some cases, additional research may be required. Sometimes pneumonia is difficult to diagnose, as many symptoms coincide with other diseases, such as colds, bronchitis and asthma.

To make a diagnosis, the doctor may first ask:

  • Do you breathe more often than usual;
  • Do you suffer from shortness of breath (you feel the fattened);
  • How long do you have a cough;
  • Expectors are you sputum, and what color is it;
  • Chest pains in breathe or exhale are enhanced.

The doctor will most likely measure the temperature to you and listens to the stethoscope in front and behind, to determine whether characteristic crackling or rattling sounds are heard. It can also listen to your chest, tapping on it. If your lungs are filled with liquid, they make a sound, which differs from the wrong, healthy lungs.

To confirm the diagnosis, the doctor will send you to the chest x-ray and other studies. The chest x-ray can show how much your lungs are amazed. X-ray also helps the doctor to distinguish pneumonia from other infectious diseases of the lungs, for example, bronchitis. In addition, a sputum analysis and blood test is carried out. Analysis of sputum or blood samples helps determine the cause of infection - bacterium or virus.

Screening on lung cancer

Although it is rarely found, but pneumonia can be a symptom of hidden lung cancer in smokers and people over the age of 50. If you fall into one of these groups, your doctor can direct you to the chest x-ray. Lung cancer on X-ray usually looks like a lot of "white-gray".

If X-ray examination has not revealed cancer, it is recommended to make a re-image after 6 weeks. This is done in order to accurately make sure that with your lungs are all right.

Treatment of pneumonia (inflammation of the lungs)

Patients with a light form of pneumonia are usually successfully treated at home. They give antibiotics, abundant drinking and provide complete peace. In more severe cases, treatment may be required in the hospital.

Treatment of inflammation of light houses (outpatient)

Cough can last another 2-3 weeks after the end of the course of antibiotics, and the feeling of fatigue can remain even longer, because your body will be recovered after the disease. If the symptoms are not started to take place within two days after the start of treatment, report it to your doctor. The effect of treatment may not be for the following reasons:

  • Bacteria causing an infection may be resistant to those antibiotics that you have taken - your doctor can register you another antibiotic in return or in addition to the first;
  • The infection can cause a virus, and not bacterium - antibiotics do not act on viruses, and the immune system of your body will have to struggle with a viral infection, producing antibodies.

To facilitate the symptoms of pneumonia, you can take painful, such as paracetamol or ibuprofen. They will help relieve pain and knock down a high temperature. You should not take ibuprofen if you have:

  • Allergies to aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs);
  • Asthma, kidney disease, stomach ulcer or digestion disruption.

It is not recommended to take a cough medicine that hovering the cough reflex (codeine, libeksin, etc.). Cough helps to clean the lungs from sputum, so if you stop the cough, the infection can remain in the body longer. In addition, there is little evidence that the cough funds are effective. Warm drink with honey and lemon will help to remove discomfort caused by cough. Drink a lot of fluid to prevent dehydration, and a lot of rest to your body recover.

If you smoke, now it is ever important to quit smoking, as it harms your light.

Pneumonia is rarely transmitted from one person to another, so the patient can be surrounded by people, including family members. However, people with a weakened immune system should avoid contact with pneumonia patients before it starts to get better.

After facilitating the symptoms, you may need some time for complete recovery. At the same time, the cough can be preserved. If it bothers you, talk to your attending physician.

Treatment of pneumonia in hospital (stationary)

With severe symptoms, you may need to go to the hospital for treatment. Treatment in the hospital will include the reception of antibiotics and fluids intravenously through the dropper and / or the supply of oxygen through the oxygen mask to relieve respiration.

In very severe cases of pneumonia, air supply to the lungs can be carried out through the device for artificial ventilation of the lungs in the resuscitation and intensive therapy.

The doctor will most likely ask you to come again after 6 weeks after the start of taking antibiotics. In some cases, it can prescribe repeated studies, for example, an x-ray of the chest if:

  • Symptoms did not appear less;
  • Symptoms returned;
  • Do you smoke;
  • You are over 50 years old.

Complications of pneumonia

Complications at pneumonia are more often observed in the elderly, small children and people with some chronic diseases, for example, diabetes. In case of complications, you will be guided by treatment to the hospital.

The most common complications for pneumonia - pleurisy, lung abscess and blood infection (sepsis) are described below.

Scheme of the development of inflammation of the pleura

Pleurisy - Inflammation of the pleura, thin shell between the lungs and chest. In more rare cases, liquid can accumulate between the lungs and walls of the chest cavity. This phenomenon is called "pleural effusion". Pleural effusion is observed by half of people treated from pneumonia in the hospital.

Liquid can put pressure on the lungs, makes it difficult to breathe. Pleural effusion usually passes as pneumonia treatment. Approximately in one of 10 cases of treatment of pneumonia in the hospital there is a liquid in the pleural cavity by bacteria, which causes the accumulation of pus - the so-called empy.

Typically, purulent releases are displayed using a needle or thin tube. In the most difficult cases, surgical intervention may be required to remove pus and eliminate the harm caused by Plegre and easy.

Abscess light - A rare complication of pneumonia, which most often happens in people with already existing serious diseases or in persons abusing alcohol. The abscess of the lung is filling the cavity in the lung tissues. Wet excavation with an unpleasant smell, swelling of the fingers and legs - the symptoms of the lung abscess.

Abscesses are often treated with antibiotics. Usually prescribed the course of antibiotics intravenously, then the reception of antibiotics in the form of tablets for 4-6 weeks. Most patients have improved well-being for 3-4 days. It is important not to throw the prescribed course of antibiotics, even if you feel completely healthy to avoid re-infection of the lungs. Approximately one of 10 people with lung abscess requires an operation to pump a pus from an abscess or removing the affected part of the lung.

Blood poisoning - Another rare and severe complication of pneumonia, also known as sepsis. Sensis symptoms:

  • High body temperature (heat) - 38º C or higher;
  • Hardness and breathing;
  • Low blood pressure (hypotension), in which dizziness is felt in the vertical position of the body;
  • change behavior, for example, disorientation in space and time;
  • reduced urination;
  • Cold, pale and sticky leather;
  • loss of consciousness.

When infecting blood, the infection may spread to other organs, such as:

  • External brain shells (meningitis);
  • Abdominal shell (peritonitis);
  • The inner sheath of the heart (endocarditis);
  • joints (septic arthritis).

These types of infection are also called "metastatic infections" (from the word "metastasis" - a remote secondary center of the pathological process) and usually occur hard. For their treatment, large doses of antibiotics intravenously prescribe.

What doctor to contact with pneumonia?

With the help of the service, you can find a good therapist or pediatrician who are usually involved in diagnosing and outpatient treatment of lung inflammation. If you are offered hospitalization, you can independently choose an infectious hospital.

How not to infect others at pneumonia

Stop the spread of microorganisms from you to other people can be compliance with hygiene rules. For example, when coughing or sneezing, close the mouth and the nose with a disposable handkerchief. Severate used disposable handkerchiefs used in the garbage bucket or toilet - microorganisms can live a few hours after the nasal or mouth cavity leaves. We wash your hands regularly to prevent the transmission of pathogens to other people and their transfer to various items.

To protect against pneumonia, people from high-risk groups must make vaccinations. The following vaccinations are recommended:

  • Village from pneumococcus (pneumococcal vaccine);
  • Influenza vaccination.

Smoking, alcohol abuse and drug use intravenously can increase the likelihood of pneumonia. Smoking harms your lung, and as a result they become more susceptible to infection. Therefore, if you smoke, the best way to prevent pneumonia is to quit smoking.

There is evidence that the non-harmony and long-term use of alcohol weakens the natural mechanisms of protection of the lungs from infections, which makes them more susceptible to pneumonia. According to one study, 45% of people hospitalized with the diagnosis of pneumonia, abused alcohol.

Alcohol abuse is a regular use of over permissible norm. Under regular use it is understood as the admission of alcoholic beverages every day or most of the days of the week. Alcohol abuse not only increases the risk of pneumonia, but also increases the likelihood that it will leak in a more severe form. According to statistics, the likelihood of death from pneumonia among those abusing alcohol, from 3 to 7 times higher than on average in the population.

Inflammation of lungs or pneumonia is a viral disease that affects the lightweight tissue and prevents the normal oxygen exchange between air and blood. Inflammatory discharges that fall into the alveoli do not allow the body to obtain a sufficient oxygen volume. And if the disease captures most of the lungs, acute respiratory failure is developing.

Pneumonia are subject to people with a weak immune system, children and elderly. Every year, only 1.5 million people suffer from the disease from the disease and 30% of them make up children of younger and people over 70 years old.

But pneumonia can be treated! And it is recommended to do this with a comprehensive approach. Treatment of any disease begins with the correct diagnosis. Therefore, at the first signs of the development of pathology, please contact a specialist.

What are the first symptoms of pneumonia, as properly and comprehensively approaching treatment and what is required to diagnose the disease, we will tell in this article.

Causes of the development of pneumonia

Pneumonia develops when bacteria and viruses and viruses fall into the lungs, as well as foreign agents that affect the part or all the pulmonary fabric. Pathology pathogens fall into the human body with a respiratory way, rarely - through blood.

Why is the disease rapidly develop in a human body with reduced immunity? In our body there are constantly present bacteria, but the protective mechanisms do not give them multiply by causing pathology. But if the immune system is weakened, the harmful microflora increases the population, which leads to the appearance of the inflammatory process.

Also develops viral pneumonia against the background of the spread of colds of the upper respiratory tract (bronchitis, tracheitis). Also, the cause of inflammation of the lungs can be the supercooling of the body, stress, overwork, abuse of smoking. The risk of developing the disease increases in people with chronic diseases and obesity.

Signs of pneumonia in adult

Signs of pneumonia in adult

When a disease occurs, a person increases the body temperature, which can reach 38 °, there is a general weakness throughout the body, a headache, a patient wants to lie down and relax. A few days later there is a strong bakery cough, a sprome appears.

Pain in the chest, especially in the focus of inflammation, as well as the appearance of shortness of breaths, talk about the severity of the situation and clearly indicate inflammation of the lungs.

Here are general features, however, the nature and time of their manifestation may differ depending on the type of pneumonia. With viral pneumonia, the first symptoms appear rapidly and the patient feels a sharp deterioration in state of health. From the very beginning of the disease, there is pain in the muscles, high body temperature, severe headache, painful dry cough.

Bacterial pneumonia on the contrary develops gradually. The disease begins only 2 weeks after the appearance of the first signs. After that, there is a sharp relief, improving the overall condition of the patient, then the temperature rises again, the headache occurs, the cough occurs, the purulent sprome appears.

One of the serious types of disease is atypical bilateral pneumonia, which extensively affects the lightweight tissue and develops breathing insufficiency. In their symptoms, bilateral pneumonia resembles a cold viral infection, and characteristic wheezing are not yet heard in the lungs. Many begin to be treated independently, which aggravates the state.

At first, the sick thinks that his condition has improved, the symptoms of pathology begin to leave. But then the cough is aggravated and the second wave of the disease begins.

Symptoms in the elderly may differ slightly. First of all, a dry cough appears, shortness of breath during small physical exertion on the body or even at rest. Often the disease occurs without increasing the temperature in people of mature age.

Signs of pneumonia in a child

Signs of pneumonia in a child

Often, pneumonia in children appears as a complication of any viral infection (ARVI, flu, etc.).

  • Cough, which is enhanced with time;
  • If the well-being of the baby improved, and then it became bad again, it can talk about the presence of complications;
  • Each deep breath leads to a strong cough rig;
  • There is a strong pallor of the skin against the development of the listed symptoms;
  • The appearance of shortness of breath.

Is pneumonia?

The inflammatory process in the pulmonary system most often appears due to the breeding of the virus and as a complication of the transferred influenza or ARVI. It is impossible to get sick itself in such cases, but it is easy to grab the disease that has become the root cause. That is, the pneumonia itself is not infection, but the development of inflammation in lungs is an independent complication that arose against the background of weakened immunity and improper self-treatment.

How is pneumonia transmitted?

The disease can be transmitted in different ways, among which:

  • Air-drip method. During the disease on the mucous membrane of the mouth and the nose, drops are formed that apply to air during sneezing and cough. You can get an airframe in any public place: hospital, shop, public transport. The pathogenic pathogen spreads through the air together with mucus particles, sputum, saliva.
  • Contact. Also, the infection is transmitted during contact - handshake, embrace, kiss. People are subjected to infections when they touch contaminated subjects or during when they touch the mouth, eyes, nose dirty hands.
  • Domestic. The infection can be transmitted through towels, dishes and shared bedding. Therefore, the patient needs to be provided with personal objects of hygiene, and as it is possible to change them more often and washing.
  • However, processing personal hygiene items are very carefully. It has been proven that viral microorganism is able to survive up to 4 hours on any surface. Frost is unbrained by the pathogenic bacteria, even a chlorine can be destroyed only five minutes after direct processing.

  • Fecal. The virus survives up to two days in fecal masses at normal intestinal emptying. You can easily be taken over the disease with improper cleaning of toilet or personal hygiene. In order not to be infected, especially from young children, it is important to constantly wash your hands after cleaning a children's pot, often change diapers and thoroughly wash the place of feces.

Pneumonia and bronchitis: What is the difference?

Both diseases affect the human respiratory system, which means that have similar symptoms. Often, two pathologies are difficult to distinguish from each other.

Pneumonia Bronchitis
In most cases, accompanied by a sharp increase in temperature to 38-39 ° and a feverish state. There is a slight increase in temperature. Accompanied by a strong dry cough. In some cases, the sputum of greenish color or with streaks of blood may appear. Wet cough, the wet has a light shade.
When listening to the chest, "wet" wheezing are heard. When listening to the chest, "dry" wheezes are heard.

How is the diagnosis of pneumonia?

How is the diagnosis of pneumonia?

If the child suffers from the disease, you need to seek a pediatrician inspection. If an adult - sign up for a reception to the therapist, which will guide you if necessary for a narrow-profile specialist. The doctor will conduct an external inspection, will collect anamnesis, examines the history of the disease and learns about the symptoms of the disease.

You will be sent to the delivery of laboratory tests:

  • General blood analysis;
  • General urine analysis;
  • Wet analysis is carried out to determine the inflammatory process in the body, as well as the pathogen of pneumonia and its sensitivity to antibiotics.

From diagnostic research methods, you will be prescribed:

  • Radiography of the chest - snapshots appear in the pictures in places of tissue damage;
  • Computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging - used as additional measures when other methods do not allow an accurate diagnosis.

Methods Treatment of pneumonia

If pneumonia has a bacterial nature, prescribe antibiotics. Their effectiveness can be estimated after 48-72 hours. If the temperature falls, the cough becomes less often, and the patient begins to feel better, the reception continues. It is impossible to interrupt the course of drugs, and it is important to take them correctly on the prescription of the doctor. If antibiotics do not help, they prescribe another treatment or change to the drug from another group.

With viral pneumonia, antibiotics are not effective, therefore antiviral drugs are prescribed. Vitamins and immunomodulators can be appointed as auxiliary substances.

As soon as the body temperature of the patient returned to normal, it is possible to prescribe physiotherapy. It allows you to bring the wet from the lungs. For this, phytopreparations are often taken, such as licorice root or complex breast fees.

Together with medication treatment, patients need bed regime, food with protein and vitamins, abundant warm drinking. For better effect, therapeutic methods are recommended - electrophoresis, inhalation, massage, magnetotherapy, etc.

Grafting from pneumonia as prevention

Bringing from the pneumococcal infection is in cases where:

  • Frequent outbreaks of disease occur;
  • Visiting public areas;
  • Work in the bacteriological laboratory;
  • Frequent pneumonia, ORVI and influenza, from which the patient suffers.

There are several drugs that are introduced intravenously against disease protection. All of them differ in their composition, cost and latitude of the spectrum of action.

In adulthood, the vaccination is made by one, a persistent immune response to the causative agent is produced in 2-3 weeks. But at the same time, experts recommend vaccinated once every 5 years.

Specialists of the Clinic "Medunion" are engaged in the diagnosis and treatment of pneumonia. You can make an appointment with a specialist one of the ways convenient for you:

  1. Online on our website Medyunion.ru. Fill out an electronic form by specifying your contact details, a specialization of a doctor, convenient date and time for receiving.
  2. Order a callback by specifying your name and phone number. Our managers will call you back within 15 minutes and answer your questions.
  3. Call the registration of a medical clinic by phone number +7 (391) 202-95-80.

One of the dangerous diseases caused by infections is pneumonia. It ranks first in the world's distribution. Most often, it is infected with other diseases in hospital conditions. It is possible to protect yourself from it if you know which symptoms when inflammation of the lungs in adults occur primarily, even without temperature.

Healthy lungs man

Signs of pneumonia at different types of

There are several of them, they differ among themselves with different symptoms, sometimes it is very difficult to identify. Favorable soil to fix infection in the body is the weakening of its immunity. And for the transition of the disease in chronic form, it will be enough for a person to launch the treatment of caries or did not cure the inflammation of the almonds in time. Usually pneumonia proceeds against high temperature , whose indicator may vary from 37 to 39 degrees . But the elderly people of such a first sign often does not happen, and to establish a disease, with a light form of symptomatics it is very difficult, which subsequently leads to serious complications.

When the disease is in acute form for a long time, and the operational treatment is not conducted, it can lead to a fatal outcome.

Most often, the disastrous consequences of pneumonia leads incorrect treatment of the disease that many are carried out at home on their own. With a cough or trio in the throat, some people will rather recover, immediately take antibiotics or anti-curses. it favorably affects adaptation to antibiotics Settled in the body of infections, and as a result, the disease will proceed with atypical symptoms.

Inflammation of the respiratory tract

Most often, pneumonia is divided into two types:

  1. Hospital . This species is dangerous in that its pathogens are very resistant to most antibiotics. Their reproduction favors hospital conditions. They can be eliminated only while observing its sanitary wet cleaning in the walls of the hospital, which is required every two weeks, which is almost impossible, since the establishment works around the clock.
  2. Complete . In this group, all other types of pneumonia are collected, its pathogens fall into the lower respiratory tract - lungs and have different symptoms. According to them, it is possible to determine the type of illness and conduct effective treatment.

The second group belongs: viral, atypical, bacterial, fungal and pneumococcal pneumonia.

Viral View

It can be caused by several varieties of viruses. Most often, such pneumonia is manifested after influenza, it acts as a complication of this disease. At the initial stage of this type of inflammation of the lungs in adults is observed Easy malaise, which is rated about 5 days , a person treats him to the effects of influenza and immediately does not treat him, believing that everything will be held soon, but then his shortness of breath and compressing chest pain appears.

The doctor listens to the patient

If you do not start treatment in time Zanamivir, Rimantadine or Osseltami , then pneumonia will result in respiratory syndrome, which causes such viruses as Paramyxoviridae. , they are the cause of pigs and measles.

The symptoms of viral pneumonia flowing without temperature include:

  • dry cough, which does not go to the productive form for a long time;
  • sense of constant fatigue;
  • Muscular or headache.
Pneumonia is dangerous in that it strikes not only the lungs, but their fabrics that are difficult after treatment are restored.

Atypical view

This kind of illness proceeds without visible symptoms, so it is quite difficult to recognize it. Treatment is often prescribed with a delay when complications have already come. Pain in the lungs is postponed to the background, as the general intoxication of the body begins, even with X-ray, there is no characteristic changes in the lungs.

Atypical view of pneumonia

Disease after the infection of the body, as a result of entering it Chlamydia, viruses, mycoplasma or legionnel , manifests itself on the second or tenth days. Changes in the lungs, according to which the disease is accurately established, manifested with a delay. Ultimately, the patient has a lack of air and high temperature, which is sometimes 38 0C and higher. The disease flowing in hard form to treat at home is useless.

The launched form of atypical pneumonia can lead to cardiopulmonary failure, from which 3% of the sick pneumonia die.

Treatment of this disease is carried out by antibiotics. The table shows the exemplary data of the percentage of patients from the total number of pneumonia suffering, which are infected with one of the viruses that caused atypical pneumonia.

Virus People exposed to the exposure agent Percentage of patients from pneumonia
Chlamydia For the most part of the male floor, between the ages of 18 and 50 fourteen%
Legionnella People of any ages that suffer from chronic noncommunicable pathologies that weaken immunity five%
Mycoplasma Adults up to 30 years old and teenagers fourteen%
Hemophilic stick People with a chronic form of the disease of the lungs and bronchi, working on highly aggregated production and smokers 6%
The doctor looks at the snapshot of the lungs

The symptoms of atypical pneumonia refers:

  • sore throat;
  • pain in muscles and head;
  • weakness;
  • dry cough.

In some cases, in such a disease, in the first days, reinforced treatment is required, so the pills do not help and the patient is immediately prescribed potent injections.

Bacterial View

Most often this type begins with a high temperature reaching 41 0C, and it appears instantly and knock it down at home without potent funds is impossible. It can stay up to three days, while the temperature can fall, then rise, regardless of medication.

Bacterial type of pneumonia

The causative agents of the bacterial type of pneumonia are Staphylococci, pneumococci and streptococci The percentage ratio of patients suffering from them is given in the table.

Pathogen People exposed to the exposure agent Percentage of patients from pneumonia
Staphilococcus People older than 50 years old and those who have suffered viral infectious diseases one%
Enterobacteria Patients with chronic kidney diseases, liver and endocrine system four%
Streptococci People who have had respiratory infections, those who have immunity weakened 31%

The success of treatment depends on the determination of the causative agent, which caused the disease.

Pneumococcal view

With such inflammation of the lungs, the symptoms in adults are manifested in the form of difficulty breathing, fattening the sputum of the "rusty" color, the rise in heartbeat, sometimes leading to tachycardia. Treatment is carried out by antibiotics.

Pneumococcal type of pneumonia

Fungal view

This is the most dangerous variety of pneumonia, which proceeds in the body asymptomatic, it is often diagnosed very late. First, the fungal view of the disease is confused with an atypical form of its manifestation, due to the missed moment in the treatment, the fungi is very much amazed - Candida albicans What leads to the formation of cavities on them.

Mushroom type of pneumonia

Symptoms of fungal pneumonia are:

  • cough;
  • sword;
  • chronic fatigue.

As soon as the temperature appears, and the pus is released during the cough, it immediately becomes clear that pneumonia is caused by fungus. Folk remedies to cope with it, treatment is carried out by antifungal drugs, such as Amphotericin, Itraconazole and similar to them. Their action should be strengthened by complex therapy, in which it is necessary to properly balance their nutrition, it is necessary to proper immunostimulants, observe the bed mode and take detoxifying agents.

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Pronounced symptoms of pneumonia without temperature

The considered symptoms accompanied by each type of pneumonia can be weakly expressed, most often needed to closely monitor changes in their body that has undergone infectious or viral diseases so that they do not turn out complications.

The main symptoms of pneumoniaAmong the signs that can be determined by the deviations of the state of the person from the norm, and the pneumonia testifying to the disease can be allocated:
  • Fast fatigue and weakness in the whole body;
  • lack of air, reinforced outbreak;
  • the presence of cough continuing for a long time;
  • small temperature;
  • With a sigh, there is pain in the chest.

Not on time, the appointed treatment threatens the transition to a disease in a difficult form, which will be accompanied by more extensive symptoms, but it will be much more difficult to cure it.

At the first symptoms of pneumonia, an adult is required to refer to the pulmonologist or therapist. After a general inspection, as well as Auscultation of the lungs Perhaps the patient will need to undergo a radiographic examination of the chest, after which the doctor will be able to accurately establish the presence of the disease.

Important information about pneumonia

Even with timely treatment, pneumonia can be dangerous, and if it does not undergo a course of antibacterial therapy in time, then it can turn into severe consequences. Pneumonia without temperature indicates that the patient has a relaxed immunity and its body is subject to the influence of various infections, you need to turn to the doctor in a timely manner and increase the body's resistance. How much treatment will last depends on the severity of the approach to the treatment and stage of the disease.

How they hurt the lungs no temperature

With pneumonia, most patients feel difficult breathing, painful syndrome, localized in the chest or back. It is not the easiest, and the surrounding tissues due to the presence of the inflammatory process and intoxication of the body. Usually the patient has fever. But there are cases when it is absent, especially at the first stages of the development of the disease. Doctors note how lungs are hurting at pneumonia so that the person can suspect pneumonia and contact the clinical institution in a timely manner:

  • difficult breathing, the appearance of discomfort on each breath;
  • gradual amplification of pain syndrome localized in the center of the chest, areas between the blades;
  • Lomotation in body, pain in the joints and muscles.

Unlike pharyngitis, tracheitis, bronchitis, at pneumonia, there is a strong weakness. It manifests itself at any time of the day, does not stop after the use of drugs. It is by excessive ailment that the transition of inflammation into the pulmonary fabric can be suspected. At this stage, the instrumental examination is required to identify the presence of pneumonia, the localization of inflammation foci.

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