Colony - what is it and what value had in the history of the colony (England, France)
December 24 2020.
Hello, dear blog readers KtonanovenKogo.ru. For centuries on Earth, metropolis existed, which operated possessions located at a considerable distance.
The basis of such powers was Colony . Most of them in the 20th century became free or turned into overseas departments of their former owners.
Let's look at what a colony is and what role they played in the system of empires.
What land treated the colonies
Colonia is a dependent territory which was under the control of a stronger foreign state (metropolis). Such lands were usually deprived of economic and political power, and the management of them was carried out on the basis of a special regime.
The subjects or citizens of the metropolis, as a rule, had more privileges compared to the local population. The formation of colonial powers performed a key way to expand the effect of imperialist countries.
Causes of their formation
The meaning of the word colony translated from Latin - " settlement " Etymology quite accurately reflects the appointment of the first colonies that were created by residents of ancient Greek policies. The concentration of land in the hands of the generic aristocracy, the deprivation of the Earth of the poor and enslavement caused the last desire to migrate in the settlement outside of the historic homeland in search of the best share.
According to them, the aristocrats were often covered with the authorine Olympus, and then the Brazds of the Board on the creation of the colonies took over trade and craft circles.
Karl Marx characterized The process of Greek colonization As a compulsory migration caused by a low level of development of the productive forces, which forced to follow the number of polls in the polishes.
If their number was more possible, too much went to distant settlements from the small Motherland. They, by a member of the philosopher of Plato, was dispersed like frogs around the pond.
Phoenician colony Unlike Greek, was originally created as trading factories, and not agricultural settlements. This was due to the economic focus of the metropolis, famous in the whole Mediterranean trading activities.
European countries They were more diverse in order to create colonies - some wanted to establish control over resources, others tried to implement expansion, thirdly moved religious and educational motives. Many countries have seen in the dependent land market sales of goods and even human resources.
For more information about the colonial policy and the conquest wars, which brought the appearance of colonies, can be found here:
Typical signs of colonies
- lack of political independence;
- operation of the local population and natural resources, causing a slowdown in economic development and a decrease in living standards;
- territorial separation from colonies;
- a confessional, cultural, ethnic difference between the aboriginal population from people living in the metropolis;
- Lack of independent legal status.
Over time in many colonies There is a national liberation movement The purpose of achieving separation from the metropolis.
Colonies of Great Britain (England)
British colonial empire existed in the period from the XVII to XX century . The first dependent territories became neighboring with England Ireland and Scotland. Subsequent with the accumulation of capital, representatives of Misty Albion began to float over the ocean, creating a support base on Newfoundland's island.
English colonies in North America Began to be created in the XVII century by Puritans who fled from persecution in their homeland. The first colony in the territory of America was called Virginia. It was created in 1607.
In a few years, the settlers began to actively grow tobacco, which became the main product of exports. After 13 years, immigrants from the Maiflauer ship built a second permanent settlement over the ocean - a new Plymouth. In total, 13 colonies will be formed here who will achieve independence and in 1776 proclaimed itself as the United States.
The colonies of England were located in all parts of the world except Antarctica.
The largest of them:
Total to the colonial powers as At the XIX century it was 43 colonies . These were territories that differed in terms of economic and political development, to maintain the influence in which were accounted for in different ways.
Not by chance, many are asked - tell us about the colony management system. At various periods, it included the following categories of dependent lands:
- Settlement colony - not included in the United Kingdom, but absolute sovereignty was proclaimed over them. In these territories, the common law and legislative acts of Parliament took power.
- Owned colonies - Granted to aristocrats (mainly in America in 16-17 centuries).
- Protectors - Formally had the status of a foreign state led by his own ruler. At the same time, such territories could not build independent relations with the third countries, and the United Kingdom authorities actively intervened in their internal affairs.
- Dominions - Embedded at the beginning of the 20th century, actually an independent state, which recognized its monarch of the United Kingdom. Such status was provided to the most economically developed territories: Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland and a number of others.
- Colonies of Great Britain, busy companies . These, first of all, treated land under the influence of the East India Company. It from the XVII century owned dozens of factories in India.
What value for England had colonies - the question is not idle. The country developed as an empire whose formula of existence assumed Conquesting of territories, their robbery and unreaccious operation . All this was explained by the need to supply the growing industry by resources.
Such a policy contributed to the economic rise of the metropolis, the transformation of the country in the "workshop of the world" and the owner of the strongest fleet.
French colonial system
The colonial empire of France existed from 1546 to 1980 . She was the second scale, but seriously different from British in the nature of colonial policy.
Adopted allotment two periods of its existence :
- 1546-1809 - The main ownership was located in the Western hemisphere, the total area of the dependent territories exceeded 8 million km2. The Parisian treaty signed in the second half of the 18th century led to the loss of colonies in the territory of modern US and Canada, as well as Senegal.
In 1803, the extensive Louisiana Square was sold, and after 6 years after that, the Portuguese was taken under the control of French Guiana. This predetermined the final decay of the first colonial empire.
- 1814-1980 - By the time of heyday in 1943, the empire expanded to 13.5 million km2, which was 9% of the Planet Square. At this time, the colony of France increased by Algeria, Indochite, Senegal, Morocco, New Caledonia, Tahiti and other lands.
Despite the frequent change of power, which occurred in the XIX century, the colonial expansion of France did not cease to be relevant. This confirmed the preservation of imperial traditions and the desire of politicians to increase their ratings due to foreign policy success.
In addition, by the middle of the century, the economic situation has noticeably improved, contributing to the successes in the acquisition of new colonies in Asia and Africa.
Colony in history - These are territories experiencing significant pressure from their owners of metropolis. In many ways, this is due to their civilization retardation and inability to counteract the invaders.
In the 20th century, colonial orders have ceased to comply with the nature of the development of the global system, and the discrimination of the local population was contrary to the new principles of the world order. In addition, most metropolis were in decline from participation in World War II, which predetermined the production of independence colonies.
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